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Opinión: ‘La Principesa’, textos sagrados y personajes inclusivos

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Comenzó otra discusión de lo absurdo. La editorial española Espejos Literarios ha lanzado una adaptación de El Principito en la que la mayoría de los personajes son femeninos, incluso sus dos protagonistas. Así, mientras las creadoras de La Principesa piensan que, a través de este trabajo, las personas pertenecientes a grupos tradicionalmente discriminados pueden verse reflejados sin necesidad de renunciar a una gran obra; muchos amantes de la versión original sienten que han sufrido un ataque imperdonable del feminismo.

Resulta que para muchas personas siempre existen libros, películas, piezas musicales que son intocables o sagradas. Cuando alguien decide reinterpretarlas o crear una nueva versión de ellas, es una provocación; peor si las cuestionan.

Esto ha sucedido con La Principesa. Usuarios en Twitter escriben que se ha hecho un daño al clásico, como si esta nueva versión limitara que el original se siga leyendo como si lo reemplazara en las librerías. Otros comentan que es una ofensa al autor, como si se fuese a resucitar a Antoine de Saint-Exupéry, muerto hace 74 años, para que firme como el creador del nuevo libro y renuncie al que escribió. Quién sabe, quizás le gustaría hacerlo.

En esta discusión, el poco criterio y apertura no es exclusivo de estas personas. En la página web del proyecto Espejos Literarios, se menciona que de los dieciocho personajes de la obra original, solo tres son de género femenino; que todos los oficios están desempeñados por hombres y que este tipo de libros son perpetuadores de estereotipos.

Sin duda es tonto y exagerado juzgar a Saint-Exupéry con los valores de otro tiempo. De pronto, reprochan al autor por no haberse mostrado mediante su obra como simpatizante del feminismo. Se subestima a los lectores en general al creer que no podrán comprender que toda obra es influenciada por el contexto en el que fue escrito; y a los niños al reemplazar el dibujo de la boa tragando al elefante por el de un volcán, debido a que se considera que así se protege a los menores de la violencia.

Sin negar la necesidad de contar con más historias en las que resalten los personajes femeninos como los masculinos, se vuelve absurdo cuando el autor sacrifica su libertad creativa por reflejar los valores reclamados por distintos grupos de la sociedad. Parece que algunos esperarán que se impongan cuotas en el proceso de creación literaria.

La Principesa podría caer en este mismo juego y ser víctima de las críticas por no tener a una protagonista transgénero, lesbiana, con discapacidad, afrodescendiente o de las llamadas comunidades originarias. Si bien es cierto que, como alegan las autoras del libro, quienes sufren algún tipo de discriminación por ser parte de un grupo humano desean encontrar historias en las que se vean representados, no lo es que, por ejemplo, un lector gay sea incapaz de disfrutar de una gran obra literaria porque los personajes sean heterosexuales.

Diego Ato
Comunicador por la Universidad de Piura. Coordina proyectos de formación democrática y derechos humanos. Le interesan los temas de género, sociedades cerradas latinoamericanas y corrección de estilo. Escribe y dibuja en su blog ‘Fante con lentes’.
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