ECONOMÍA

Transferencias Condicionadas de Recursos: una primera aproximación

Fuente: Ministerio de Desarrollo e Inclusión Social

Los programas de Transferencias Condicionadas de Recursos (TCR) son aquellos que transfieren dinero a hogares vulnerables que cumplan con invertir en el capital humano de las futuras generaciones del hogar. Por lo general, las condiciones abarcan el ámbito educativo -como asistencia escolar- y de salud -visitas periódicas al centro de salud, vacunación oportuna, entre otros. Las TCR son variables tanto en escala como en enfoque. En Brasil y México, los programas Bolsa Familia y Oportunidades cubren a millones de hogares; mientras que en otros países -como en Perú- se enfocan en hogares viviendo en pobreza extrema y condiciones de exclusión. Incluso, en Bangladesh y Camboya estos programas son utilizados para reducir la desigualdad de género en la educación básica (Fiszbein et al., 2009).

El Programa Nacional de Apoyo Directo a los Más Pobres –Juntos– fue creado en 2005 y tiene como misión el contribuir al desarrollo humano y de capacidades mediante un accionar orientado a romper la transferencia intergeneracional de la pobreza (Juntos, 2017, pág. 6). El programa consiste de una transferencia bimensual de 200 soles para los hogares que cumplan con responsabilidades relacionadas a la salud y la educación de los niños del hogar. Por ejemplo, los niños de hasta 6 años de edad deben asistir al menos cada dos meses a sus controles de crecimiento y desarrollo (CRED); mientras que los niños y jóvenes de entre 6 y 19 años deben estar inscritos en el colegio y asistir regularmente, con un máximo de 6 ausencias por bimestre[1]. La primera transferencia fue realizada en 2005 a 1,041 hogares de la comunidad de Chuschi en Ayacucho. En 2017 fueron 693,504 los hogares abonados; lo cual representó una transferencia total de alrededor de 838 millones de soles.

Fiszbein et al. (2009) resume los hallazgos empíricos obtenidos a nivel mundial respecto a los programas de TCR. En general, este tipo de programas tiene un efecto significativo en el aumento del uso de los servicios educativos y de salud por parte de los beneficiarios. No obstante, la evidencia respecto a los resultados finales de la intervención es mixta: las TCR tienen un impacto moderado en el número de años escolares completados, y reducen la incidencia de indicadores de desnutrición en algunos países y entre algunas poblaciones (Fiszbein et al., 2009, pág. 127).

Una evaluación de impacto realizada al programa Juntos reveló que el programa aumentó el consumo per cápita de los hogares beneficiarios e incrementó la proporción del gasto destinado a alimentos en 2pp (MEF, 2017, pág. 5). Con ello, la pobreza de los hogares beneficiarios respecto a la línea base se redujo entre 2.7% y 3.7% durante el período 2011-2016. El programa también influyó positivamente en los indicadores de educación: aumentó la asistencia al colegio y el tiempo destinado a los estudios, además de disminuir la deserción escolar. En cuanto a la salud infantil, si bien Juntos impactó positivamente el cumplimiento de los controles CRED, no se encontraron resultados significativos en los indicadores de desnutrición infantil.

Como se observa, tanto en la literatura internacional como en aquella para el Perú, la evidencia respecto a los efectos finales de los programas TCR no es concluyente. Ante ello, es importante entender por qué los programas no están teniendo un mayor impacto en estos indicadores y cómo esto puede mejorar. Por ejemplo, los autores de la evaluación de Juntos sugieren una mejor articulación con el sector salud para que el aumento en la demanda de servicios se traduzca en resultados finales, pues cabe la posibilidad de que el servicio de salud ofrecido no sea de la calidad apropiada (MEF, 2017, pág. 9). Esta y otras posibles explicaciones quedan aún pendientes en la agenda de investigación.

[1] Existen otras responsabilidades: las mujeres embarazadas deben asistir a sus controles prenatales, los niños de entre 3 y 6 años deben asistir a un centro de educación temprana, entre otros.

Bibliografía

Fiszbein, A.; Schady, N.; Ferreira, F.H.G.; Grosh, M.; Keleher, N.; Olinto, P.; Skoufias, E. (2009). Conditional Cash Transfers: Reducing Present and Future Poverty. World Bank Policy Research Report. Washington, DC: Banco Mundial.

Juntos (2017). Memoria Institucional 2016.

MEF (2017). Evaluación de Impacto del programa JUNTOS – Resultados finales. Informe de evaluación. Elaborado por Álvaro Monge, Janice Seinfeld y Yohnny Campana.

Lucía Valdivieso
Estudiante de economía de la Universidad del Pacífico. Amo al Perú y sueño con contribuir a mejorarlo. También me gusta viajar, cocinar y tomar fotos.
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