ECONOMÍA

Todos en los bancos

Fuente: El Comercio

En la actualidad no se puede hablar de una sociedad sin hablar del dinero y la economía, y no se puede hablar del dinero sin hablar de los bancos. Es por eso que el indice de población que participa en el sistema bancario es tan importante.

Según el Global Findex, índice alabadora por el Banco Mundial, solo el 43% de la población peruana participa en el sistema financiero, el índice más bajo de Latino América después de Colombia con 46%, el país latinoamericano con la mayor población activa en el sistema financiero es Chile (con 74%). Pero estas cifras no dejan de significar un gran aumento, pues el 2015 solo el 29% de personas tenía una cuenta bancaria. Aunque, de seguir así no llegaremos a la meta marcada por el MEF, BCR, SBS y Banco de la Nación, un 75% de la población adulta que participe en el sistema bancario.

Pero esto no acaba aquí, pues tenemos una categoría en la que aún nos falta mejorar muchísimo. La diferencia entre hombres y mujeres que participan en el sistema bancario es de 17%. El 51% de hombre posee una cuenta bancaria, mientras que solo el 34% de mujeres la posee. Esta tendencia se ve fuertemente correlacionada con la población económicamente activa masculina y femenina; es decir, correlacionada con la proporción de mujeres y hombres con empleos formales, en gran medida porque la mayoría de centros de trabajos formales realizan los pagos de planilla mediante depósitos en cuentas bancarias. En esta categoría, indicador de igualdad empleabilidad por diferencia de género, esto no quiere decir que no haya desigualdad salarial por género para el mismo puesto, estamos casi al mismo nivel que los países árabes, siendo incluso superados por Palestina.

Por otro lado es importante recalcar que a pesar de tener un 43% de personas que participen en el sistema bancario, el 90% de las operaciones se siguen realizando en efectivo. Y esto es una gran nicho de crecimiento, y teóricamente sencillo de alcanzar. Solo se necesita que las personas empiecen a usar sus tarjetas de débito, POS, pagos por internet, entre otros. Pero en la práctica es un poco más difícil pues requiere que los consumidores tengan la seguridad de poder usar estos medio, sin tener miedo a que les clonen la tarjeta; y que los vendedores de bienes o servicios están integrados al sistema bancario, que permitan que el consumidor pueda pagar vía POS o depósito.

Logrando esto, los primeros beneficiados seríamos los peruanos de a pie, pues la sinergia misma de las operaciones llevarían a que los bancos otorgasen préstamos a menores tasas, que los bancos diesen mayores y mejores beneficios con sus productos. Luego mejoraría la situación para los que ofrecen productos y servicios porque esto podría permitir que los bancos les cobren menores comisiones por los pagos en tarjetas y en el mejor de los casos podría abaratar ciertos productos, ya que el costo operativo sería menor.

Agustín Orozco
UdeP, futuro economista y mellizo
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