ECONOMÍA

¿Los rivales de Perú en el Mundial son económicamente competitivos?

Fuente: Vexels

En primer lugar, mencionemos a nuestros tres rivales:

  • Dinamarca, con un PBI per cápita (PBI pc) de US$ 56,444.10, se encuentra en el puesto 12 del ranking del Índice de Competitividad.
  • Australia, con un PBI pc de US$ 55,707.28, se ubica en el puesto 21.
  • Francia, PBI pc de US$ 39,869.08, se encuentra en el puesto 22.

Nuestro país se encuentra en el puesto 72 con un PBI pc de US$6,762.19.

¿Qué es el Índice de Competitividad?

Anualmente, el Foro Económico Mundial (World Economic Forum, WEF) se encarga de publicar los resultados de una evaluación de diversos factores que impulsan la productividad y el crecimiento económico, en su conjunto, se le denomina el índice de competitividad. Este índice se mide a través de doce pilares, los cuales están agrupados en tres fases de desarrollo que el WEF considera relevante.

En la primera fase, podemos encontrar una economía que está basada en los factores básicos de la producción; en la segunda fase, una economía basada en los promotores de eficiencia y, en la última fase, una economía basada en la innovación. En el Gráfico 1, se puede observar las tres fases mencionadas con sus respectivos pilares.

 

Fuente: WEF

Los resultados

El Gráfico 2, nos muestra los doce pilares de los cuatro mundialistas. Podemos observar que, en la Primera Fase, Dinamarca cuenta con un buen nivel de calidad institucional y un mejor entorno macroeconómico, lo cual le hace muy atractivo para las inversiones extranjeras. Por ello, Dinamarca cuenta con un alto PBI pc a comparación de los otros países. Por ejemplo, el PBI pc de Dinamarca es de US$ 56,444.10, mientras que el de Perú es de US$6,762.19. Ello, es el reflejo de la calidad institucional de nuestro país, estamos dos a tres niveles inferiores con respecto a los demás.

Con respecto al pilar de infraestructura, Francia cuenta con un mejor nivel, dado que, invierte más en carreteras, cuenta con excelentes conexiones aéreas y férreas, mantiene una buena calidad del sistema de electrificación, etc. Tenemos así que, Francia tiene 15 veces más de líneas férreas que Perú. Por último, Australia es el país con un mejor nivel de salud y de educación primaria. Según el Banco Mundial (BM), Australia gasta, por alumno del nivel primario, 18.32% del PBI per cápita; mientras que, nuestro país gasta 11.77%. Cifras relativamente elevadas, si es que mencionamos que el PBI pc de Australia es 8 veces más que el peruano.

De los 6 pilares de la segunda fase, Dinamarca es superior en 4 pilares: educación superior y capacitación, eficiencia en los mercados de bienes, eficiencia en el mercado laboral y preparación tecnológica. En materia de tecnología, Dinamarca gasta en investigación y desarrollo tecnológico alrededor del 3% del PBI, mientras que Perú, 0.1%. Con respecto al mercado de bienes, Dinamarca exporta alrededor de 95 mil millones y Perú, 37 mil millones. Por otro lado, Australia cuenta con un mejor desarrollo del mercado financiero y Francia, con un mayor tamaño de mercado.

Por último, los dos principales pilares que se consideran para una economía sostenible, Dinamarca es el mejor en ambos pilares: la sofisticación empresarial e innovación. Contar con un buen nivel de tecnología impulsa la innovación y Dinamarca lo sabe manejar.

Fuente: WEF

Si el índice de Competitividad fuesen los resultados de los partidos, perderíamos por goleada. Como pudimos ver, estamos a niveles muy bajos de los pilares de la primera fase. Pero no hay que bajar los ánimos. Si pudimos ir al mundial después de 36 años, podríamos esperar mejorar en los pilares. Con el mismo espíritu que alentamos a la selección, sería ideal alentar a la educación, ya que, es pilar muy importante para toda mejora económica.

Esperemos mejoras en este gobierno y en los que vienen, pero no vale esperar mucho; también hay que poner de nosotros.

Fuentes:

The global competitiveness report 2017-2018

Banco Mundial

 

Mariela Silva López
Economista de profesión. Pienso que la educación es la mejor herramienta para combatir todo mal económico. Converso de lo maravillosa que es la vida, la naturaleza, la playa, y confieso, que a todo le tomo foto.
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