ECONOMÍA

Inclusión financiera en el Perú: un reto

Fuente: Kienyke

Nos referimos a inclusión financiera cuando tenemos el acceso a una variedad de servicios financieros que logran satisfacer nuestros objetivos a largo plazo o de cubrir nuestras necesidades de urgencia. Entre los ejemplos de lo anterior se encuentran las tarjetas de créditos, una cuenta bancaria que nos permite realizar ahorros, enviar y recibir pagos y los seguros, todos ellos prestados de una manera responsable y sostenible.

DATOS

Según el Global Findex 2017, índice que es elaborado por el Banco Mundial, alrededor de 43% de los peruanos poseen una cuenta en el sistema financiero formal. En el 2014, sólo el 29% de los peruanos poseían una cuenta bancaria.

Si comentamos de la brecha de género del sector bancario, el 95% de los hombres y el 93% de las mujeres poseen una cuenta bancaria en los países con ingresos altos. Mientras que, en los países en desarrollo, el 67% de los hombres y el 59% de las mujeres poseen una cuenta bancaria. Claramente, se observa una diferencia de género marcada entre ambos tipos de economías.

En el Perú, la diferencia es de 17 puntos porcentuales, ya que el 51% de hombres tienen acceso a una cuenta bancaria, mientras que, el 34% de las mujeres la tienen. Esta situación es muy similar a países como Nigeria (51% hombres y 27% mujeres) o Marruecos (41% hombres y 17% mujeres). Por otro lado, Chile y Colombia presentan una diferencia porcentual, en la brecha de género del sector bancario, de 6%.

ANÁLISIS

En las últimas declaraciones del presidente del Banco Mundial, Jim Yong Kim, resaltó que el acceso a los servicios financieros es crucial para reducir la pobreza y la inequidad. El desarrollo continuo de la tecnología ha contribuido a que las personas puedan acceder a los servicios financieros formales de manera veloz. Por ejemplo, entre el 2014 y 2017, el aumento del uso de los celulares y el acceso a Internet, para realizar transacciones, han contribuido en el aumento del 9% de la población que accedió a una cuenta bancaria.

Para crear un ambiente de inclusión financiera es necesario contar con un marco normativo y regulatorio ideal para fomentar la competencia, con el objetivo que las entidades bancarias puedan innovar y ampliar el acceso de sus servicios financieros. Por ejemplo, En Colombia, por cada 100,000 habitantes adultos, se encuentran 272 oficinas financieras, mientras que, en el Perú, sólo hay 21 oficinas.

Asimismo, es importante contar una educación financiera, es decir, entender cómo se manejan los servicios financieros, cómo obtenerlos, cómo usarlos, etc. Para ello, se espera que se implemente en la etapa escolar una educación financiera centrada en el ahorro, en el uso y utilidad de los servicios financieros. Si comparamos, en Brasil, por cada 1,000 habitantes adultos, 894 son deudores; en el Perú, 379 habitantes son deudores- Hay cifras que mejorar.

La educación financiera, profundizar el uso del sistema financiero entre los bancarizados y la inclusión financiera para mujeres son retos que la Comisión Multisectorial de Inclusión Financiera1 asume. Así, se espera que el 75% de la población adulta peruana tenga una cuenta bancaria en el 2020.

[1] Cuyos participantes son: Ministerios de Economía y Finanzas, Desarrollo e Inclusión Social y Educación, la Superintendencia de Banca, Seguros y AFP, el Banco de la Nación y el Banco Central de Reserva, se encarga de realizar el seguimiento e implementación de la Estrategia Nacional de Inclusión Financiera (ENIF).

Fuentes:

SBS: Estadística Financiera

BCRP: Sistema Financiero

Banco Mundial: Financial inclusion on the rise

Mariela Silva López
Economista de profesión. Pienso que la educación es la mejor herramienta para combatir todo mal económico. Converso de lo maravillosa que es la vida, la naturaleza, la playa, y confieso, que a todo le tomo foto.
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