ECONOMÍA

Habilidades y empleabilidad en los jóvenes peruanos

Fuente: Esmadi

En un mundo globalizado y altamente competitivo, es conveniente analizar cómo le va en materia de habilidades a los jóvenes peruanos. En primer lugar, en tanto ellos representan las características y tendencias que presentará la productividad existente en el mercado laboral en años venideros. En segundo lugar, porque nos ofrecen múltiples perspectivas sobre qué se ha realizado en materia de políticas públicas años atrás respecto a ello. Entre ellas, las que se refieren a lo emprendido por parte de las entidades pertinentes para impactar positivamente en dichas habilidades, cuya calidad se puede contrastar con los demás países de la región.

En general, la región de América Latina y el Caribe presentan grandes diferencias respecto a habilidades si nos comparamos con países más desarrollados como los de América del Norte o Europa [1]. Pero, en principio, ¿qué se entiende por “brecha de habilidades”? Se entiende a esta como la falta de sintonía entre la demanda y oferta de habilidades en el mercado laboral (González Velosa, 2015). Luego, ¿por qué se hace necesario analizar sobre dichas brechas? Debido a que, como afirman Díaz et al. (2016), las habilidades, tanto cognitivas y socioemocionales, son factores cruciales para el individuo en la consecución del éxito socioeconómico.

Respecto a esto último, evidencia empírica valiosa y novedosa para el Perú, siguiendo de nuevo a Díaz et al. (2016), muestra que dos tipos de habilidades son relevantes -las cognitivas y socioemocionales- las cuales son apreciadas por los empleadores de las empresas peruanas. Esto en tanto los retornos que se muestran en el estudio para cada tipo de habilidad son importantes en magnitud. Por ejemplo, los retornos en los ingresos laborales son de 9% para las habilidades cognitivas, mientras que para las socioemocionales es de 5%, dependiendo de una determinada dimensión de la personalidad.

Así, en tanto la economía siga un tímido ritmo de crecimiento – se creció un 2.81% en enero último- es evidente que no se ampliarán en gran forma más puestos de trabajo [2]. Se sigue, entonces, que los jóvenes serán los más perjudicados en tanto ellos son el segmento etario que tiene menor probabilidad de conseguir un empleo. A modo de ilustración, se conoce que 7 de cada diez empleadores no consideran idóneos a un candidato determinado debido a que no presenta las habilidades requeridas para la vacante disponible (Gestión, 2018).

Por ello, en vista de lo señalado anteriormente, se hace necesario mejorar a través de políticas públicas las perspectivas laborales futuras de aquellos. Así, la tarea por parte de los hacedores de política pasa por diseñar programas que incidan en mejoras de las habilidades cognitivas y socioemocionales de los jóvenes a través del canal educativo u otras plataformas pertinentes. De ello se derivarán mejoras en el mediano plazo en las perspectivas de empleabilidad en los jóvenes al tener estos una mejor inserción y permanencia exitosas en las empresas que vayan a laborar.

[1] El Índice de Competitividad Global reveló que los jóvenes de países de América Latina presentan grandes desventajas respecto a sus pares de países desarrollados en tanto trabajan en mayor proporción en el sector informal y, asimismo, presentan más importantes deficiencias en el tema de habilidades en general.

[2] Parodi menciona que se necesita crecer a tasas mayores al 3% mensual para crear nuevos empleos.

 

Fuentes:

DÍAZ, J.; ARIAS, O.; TUDELA, D. Los retornos de las habilidades cognitivas y socioemocionales en el Perú, 2016, p. 195. En CÉSPEDES, N.; LAVADO, P.; RAMÍREZ RONDÁN, N. Productividad en el Perú: medición, determinantes e implicancias. Universidad del Pacífico, 2016.

Gestión. (15 de Enero de 2018). Habilidades blandas: ¿qué necesitan los jóvenes para tener éxito dentro de las empresas?

GÓNZALEZ VELOSA, C. (2015). ¿Qué sabemos (o no) de la brecha de habilidades?. En Factor Trabajo, BID.

Perú 21 (20 de Marzo de 2018). Crecimiento y desempleo. Columna de Carlos Parodi.

Jorge Condeña
Futuro economista convencido que el bienestar social da una mayor utilidad que el bienestar personal. Me agrada investigar y escribir sobre los temas que conciernen al desarrollo del Perú.
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