ECONOMÍA

Equidad para desarrollar un futuro mejor

Fuente: Laboratoria

La revolución tecnológica de las últimas décadas ha permitido mejorar de una manera increíble nuestras vidas. La llegada de nuevos productos tecnológicos y digitales ha cubierto muchas demandas y necesidades de la población mundial y, a su vez, empezó a crear otras nuevas. No obstante, el curso de dicho fenómeno, ha afectado de una manera diferente a hombres y mujeres en todo el orbe. Esto último en términos de acceso y uso de las distintas tecnologías. Es más, estas diferencias entre hombres y mujeres se acentúan aún más si nos percatamos de la gran diferencia acerca de qué género desarrolla más las nuevas tecnologías.

En primer lugar, repasando algunas estadísticas, se calcula que más de 1.700 millones de mujeres no poseen ‘smartphones’. Asimismo, la probabilidad de que ellas cuenten con uno es de un 14% menor al de un hombre. En el Perú, la diferencia de dicho acceso es de un 8%. Esto por el lado de la demanda. Pero, ¿qué hay detrás de los que desarrollan páginas web y crean las aplicaciones de celular que tanto utilizamos? Al menos en América Latina, menos del 10% de programadores son mujeres. Y específicamente en Perú, solo el 7% de desarrolladores web son féminas. Incluso, según INEI, las mujeres conforman menos del 10% del número de estudiantes que siguen carreras relacionadas a la tecnología.

En segundo lugar, como menciona el Banco Mundial (2016), conforme se incrementen el número de sectores económicos que dependan de las redes digitales y el Internet, la demanda de habilidades vinculadas a la TIC se incrementará. Si no hay cambios, es muy posible que haya una escasez de mano de obra especializada. Esto puede impactar de una manera drástica los mercados laborales en tanto habrá fuertes desplazamientos y ceses de una gran cantidad de trabajadores. De igual manera, el desarrollo de los sectores más vinculados a la TIC se verán limitados competitivamente en relación a sus pares internacionales, afectando así el desarrollo económico. Así, una mayor democratización de las tecnologías digitales se hace necesaria en tanto se requiere de personas con el tipo de especialización indicada.

Si hablamos de la situación en el Perú, el caso de Laboratoria es sumamente interesante. Este programa empezó en el año 2014 brindando las capacitaciones a jóvenes mujeres provenientes de distritos considerados pobres económicamente. El alto potencial de este programa ha permitido incluir a más de 400 participantes de México, Chile y Perú y, más importante aún, su acceso al mercado laboral haciendo uso de dichas habilidades. En suma, la labor que ha realizado Laboratoria es encomiable, ya que permite empoderar a las mujeres de bajos recursos. Con ello dar las mismas oportunidades en el rubro tecnológico que cualquier persona con un mejor nivel socioeconómico en el mismo sector.

En conclusión, un mayor acceso de mujeres como desarrolladoras de tecnologías promueve muchos efectos positivos tanto directos como indirectos. Por el primer punto, las mujeres en este rubro obtienen tres veces mayores ingresos que otros sectores. Por el segundo punto, no solo el hogar mejora de manera económica, sino también hay un mejor manejo de herramientas tecnológicas y acceso a la información que antes, lo cual es crucial hoy en día.  Los dividendos digitales [1] serán mayores si procuramos, entonces, un acceso equitativo tanto para hombres como para mujeres.

[1] Dividendos digitales: Según el Banco Mundial, se refiere a los beneficios más amplios en términos de desarrollo derivados de la utilización de tecnologías digitales.

Fuentes:

El Comercio (2017). Mariana Costa: La líder que programa el futuro de otras mujeres.

El País (2016). Las mujeres no están “en línea” tanto como los hombres.

Banco Mundial (2016). Informe sobre el desarrollo mundial 2016: Dividendos digitales, cuadernillo del “Panorama general”. Banco Mundial, Washington DC.

Banco Mundial (2016). Mujeres: de consumir a producir tecnología.

Jorge Condeña
Futuro economista convencido que el bienestar social da una mayor utilidad que el bienestar personal. Me agrada investigar y escribir sobre los temas que conciernen al desarrollo del Perú.
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