CULTURA

Opinión: Tres veces Jerusalén

Jerusalén es única: las tres grandes religiones monoteístas la reconocen como ciudad sagrada y por ella -por su posesión- se ha discutido, llorado y peleado por siglos. ¿Por qué?

«LA CIUDAD DE LA PAZ»

El nombre hebreo de la ciudad (Yĕrušalayim) significa «Ciudad de la paz». El rey David y su hijo Salomón (s. X a.C.) la establecieron como capital: ambos monarcas marcaron la cumbre del poder sociopolítico del antiguo Israel. Y fue precisamente Salomón quien construyó allí el gran Templo donde descansaba el Arca de la Alianza, a la que entendían como presencia de Dios mismo. Durante siglos miles de judíos y prosélitos (simpatizantes) peregrinaron tres veces al año a Jerusalén en razón del Templo. El edificio salomónico fue destruido por los persas en el siglo VI a.C. y reconstruido años después; radicalmente mejorado por el rey Herodes (s. I d.C.) fue finalmente borrado del mapa por Roma aplastando la insurrección judía del año 70 d.C. Restos de aquel  lugar son la «Explanada del Templo» y la parte inferior del «Muro de los lamentos» (El Kotel).

«EL SANTO SEPULCRO»

El cristianismo, por su lado, reconoce en Jerusalén el espacio de la última prédica, ajusticiamiento y resurrección de Jesucristo (año 30 o 31 de nuestra era): por sus calles y entre los pórticos del Templo Jesús caminó, fungió de taumaturgo y predicó «La Buena nueva». Los eventos finales del Nazareno sucedieron en los extramuros de la ciudad -el promontorio llamado Gólgota («Calavera») y la tumba en el jardín- que terminaron, tras vicisitudes histórico-arquitectónicas, dentro de la basílica de la Resurrección (levantada por Constantino en el siglo IV). La tumba vacía de Cristo, el «Santo Sepulcro» (recientemente restaurado por la National Geographic), es meta de peregrinaciones desde hace casi dos mil años.

«LA SANTA»

El Islam llama a Jerusalén al-Quds («La Santa») y es su tercera ciudad sagrada tras la Meca y Medina: según la tradición islámica fue en Jerusalén donde Mahoma ascendió a los cielos sobre un ser alado. Los seguidores del Profeta se posesionaron de ella en el VII d.C. y sobre la abandonada explanada del Templo levantaron la mezquita Al-Aksha («La lejana») y la dorada Cúpula de la Roca (Kubbet es Sachra) que cubre el lugar desde el cual El Profeta fue llevado ante Dios. Y algo más. El Domo de la Roca ocupa lo que fue el «Lugar Santísimo» donde los judíos, en tiempos del Templo, guardaban el Arca de la Alianza: dos tradiciones religiosas se cruzan en este espacio.

Hoy, el Estado de Israel y el pueblo Palestino reclaman Jerusalén como capital propia («Indiscutible», para unos; «Eterna», para otros) y ese impasse se reaviva por la decisión del presidente Trump de reconocerla como ciudad capital de Israel. ¿Fue una decisión acertada o una precipitación? ¿Ayudará a la paz palestino-israelí o desatará nueva violencia en nombre de Dios y de la posesión de la tierra?

Jerusalén, tres veces santa: ¿cuándo conocerá la paz la santa ciudad de la paz?

Hernán Yamanaka
Lector obsesivo, conversador impenitente. Estudió educación, filosofía y teología.
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