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Juan Manuel Robles: “Los excesos tecnológicos nos terminarán confundiendo”

Casa de América

En “No somos cazafantasmas” (Seix Barral, 2018),libro de cuentos que se presentó en la más reciente Feria Internacional del Libro de Lima y próximo  a aparecer en Colombia y España, el escritor peruano  Juan Manuel Robles aborda en relatos como “Constelación nostalgia”, “Valentina en las nubes”, “Elefantes blanco” y el que presta su nombre al libro,  los trastornos y las distorsiones originadas por los cada vez más prolíficos avances tecnológicos ,mostrando las nuevas dinámicas que surgen al interactuar con nuestros más íntimos miedos, el anhelo obsesivo por lograr una felicidad continua y perpetua, y los intereses económicos de las industrias por monetizar nuestra nostalgia sin límites ético la mayoría de veces. Sobre ello conversamos en la presente entrevista en la que la palabra paranoia sobrevoló la mayoría de las respuestas.

¿Ha cambiado demasiado nuestra sensibilidad en esta época de innovación tan acelerada o es solo una percepción por la mayor exposición sobre cómo nos afectan estos cambios?

En realidad la sensibilidad, no ha cambiado. Si hubiera cambiado, no habría mayor problema porque significa que nos hemos adaptado. Lamentablemente, no es así aún por lo que existe un desfase mientras aparecen nuevas maneras de concebir temas como la socialización y las relaciones interpersonales. A mí me gusta observarlo y analizarlo desde mi contexto que es el Tercer Mundo, lo cual considero que es importante decirlo debido a nuestra situación de receptores de tecnología que otros producen.

Considero que la sensibilidad por la que preguntas  podríamos relacionarla a la relectura de la primera parte de “Cien años de soledad”, con el personaje de Melquíades mostrando una serie de productos a Buendía que le interroga  si con ello se puede obtener oro, viéndose ahí una imaginación y necesidades particulares en las que la tecnología nos puede ayudar o confundir.  Esa interacción es súper interesante. Me gusta imaginar un mundo en el que algunos excesos tecnológicos pueden terminar confundiéndonos, nublando nuestra vista y haciéndole creer que esta es mucho más sofisticada. Nos hace pensar de qué está hecho el ser humano. Uno puede creer que el ser humano está hecho de perfecciones y que la tecnología las completa de manera espléndida, pero en realidad te das cuenta de que parte de nuestra virtud son las imperfecciones y llegas a temas como la memoria o el olvido demasiados perfectos. No comprendemos que las distracciones de la memoria son parte de nuestra organicidad y que la obsesión por el almacenamiento no mejora ese mecanismo, sino que de alguna manera lo desmiente y lo confronta.

El tema económico es importante en tus crónicas y cuentos pues no todos pueden tener acceso a los cambios tecnológicos de forma inmediata, volviéndose un mecanismo para obtener un mayor prestigio social. ¿Llegaremos a un punto de hartazgo de estar subyugados a la obtención de lo más novedoso?

La tecnología en cierto momento se vuelve democrática. Hay una parte de ella que llega y cala a un nivel no tan esperado, como en algunas comunidades nativas de Ecuador, por ejemplo, que utilizan cantos para anunciarse cosas y lo hacen vía mensajes de voz por Whatsapp. A pesar de que no existan los recursos muchas veces, se busca igual que la tecnología esté presente.

La literatura de ciencia ficción si bien es criticada muchas veces de tener cierto aire clasista al imaginar que todos accedemos a la tecnología de manera similar, hay varias maneras de contrarrestar dicha afirmación. Los fenómenos de las redes y la posverdad  por ejemplo, son globales e inciden de manera directa en países como el nuestro, copiados al modo latinoamericano, generando una narrativa alterna y haciendo posible que las élites sigan controlando el estado de ánimo y los signos de la época, algo fuerte pero cierto al final.

En tus cuentos uno percibe que lo más peligroso que la pérdida de la memoria es su adulteración. Y si la narrativa oficial de una sociedad estaba antes bajo el poder del Estado, hoy parece bajo el control de una hidra económica sin una sola cabeza visible que edulcora el pasado.

Uno de los principales efectos de la posverdad es la presencia de relatos alternativos y en un futuro, también la de realidades alternativas. Eso sí me queda claro. Alguien que ahora tenga veinte años, tendrá versiones de la Historia cuando envejezca, que serán falsas y que otro no tiene. ¿Por qué? Por cierta dirección que toma ahora la información. Está el caso del “efecto Mandela”, por ejemplo, en el que muchas personas pensaban que había muerto en la cárcel y defendían esa posición con mucha energía. Y lo que describe este efecto es que una colectividad pueda recordar un hecho distinta a otra, teniendo una memoria en conjunto completamente distinta al resto, lo cual no es tan difícil teniendo los medios de comunicación adecuados y la posibilidad del contagio de información.

A lo que yo juego un poco en mis cuentos es a exponer la idea de la felicidad como un móvil para imponer una idea. Cómo el hecho de tener cientos de miles de imágenes te permite editar el pasado del modo que quieras, incluso con un algoritmo que te permita “eliminar” hechos traumáticos o tristes de tu vida, o hacer cómputos de tus experiencias diarias, como una especie de curaduría de tus recuerdos. Y está la contraparte que también muestro de usar esta edición para amenazar a alguien y realizar crímenes con archivos específicos de tu pasado.

En “Valentina en las nubes” y “Elefantes blancos” hay un miedo generalizado al futuro, de enfrentar lo que va a venir, lo cual muchas veces se termina convirtiendo en un insumo capitalizable para la Industria. ¿Qué tan presente lo ves en tu generación?

La nostalgia es la constelación de recuerdos de los momentos en los que soñábamos en lo que todo era posible, pero con los años esa constelación pasa a ser el instante de felicidad en sí. Es el engolosinamiento de la memoria. Como nos pasa con los ochenta por ejemplo. Así que más una época, es una idealización que ocurre posteriormente que la industria ayuda a promover a través de la música y que ocurre en las listas de Spotify, cuando uno las arma y luego esta plataforma te ofrece otra “ideal para ti” o Sublime que vuelve a sacar nuevas ediciones de su producto cada cierto tiempo. Y ello lleva a preguntarse mas bien qué es lo que se está yendo en la competencia desleal de memorias y por qué algunas de estas se vuelven más férreas y acaparan más espacios en uno. La virtualidad a futuro generará más distorsiones debido a la modificación de la experiencia física además.

En “Botón de emergencia” me llamó la atención que se muestre cómo alguien puede lograr el poder político defendiendo causas que siendo válidas no son las más trascendentes. ¿Es una especie de desazón y anhedonia de la población que responde de manera emotiva a las propuestas que se les ofrecen?

Lo que lo retiene en la burocracia a muchas personas es el atractivo del poder, lo cual también se presenta en el caso tecnológico.  Y en el cuento lo que abordaba era esa especie de rutina mecánica de llamar a elecciones. Muestro sobre todo el afán por lograr ungir a alguien como el ser perfecto, aquel que atrae todas las simpatías, lo que uno ve en Instagram siempre de manera obsesiva. Hacer esa historia fue un divertimento sobre el tema del destino, sin tratar de proponer una solución a esta realidad dentro del marco de la ficción.

En el cuento que presta su título al libro tocas el tema de la expropiación de los recuerdos, pero si uno ve la realidad uno aún no ve una paranoia generalizada por esta situación, como si estuviésemos sedados en general. ¿Cómo lo percibes?

Es por el tema de la felicidad sobre el que hablábamos antes. Yo por ejemplo no tengo activada ninguna de las opciones de recuerdos de Facebook y a veces me preguntan las razones, a lo que respondo que el único curador de mi memoria soy yo. Y a mucha gente le encanta que Facebook haga esto, así sea una máquina que procesa una serie de hechos tuyos de manera automatizada. Pero surge la interrogante de cómo controlas miles y miles de fotos que lleva a la gente a preferir dejárselo encargado a alguien más, además del hecho de que las redes sociales te llevan a estar al día con tus afectos.

De todas maneras sí creo que surgirán olas de paranoias colectivas, primero en lugares más centrales y desarrolladas y que aparecerán empresas que te administren tu contenido digital, con términos mucho más claros que Facebook.

¿Cómo fue el proceso de documentación científica para la realización de estos cuentos?

Todo empezó cuando estaba escribiendo la novela anterior y me interesó el tema de la memoria llegando primero a textos de psicología y luego a aquellos más específicos vinculados a la neurociencia, los cuales me puse a leer con mucha curiosidad, fuente de la disciplina y el rigor la mayoría de las veces, al punto que me metí a un curso del doctorado de este tema. Suelo leer papers sobre este tema, lo cual  muchas veces resulta gracioso al notar cómo se muestran descubrimientos que en cualquier otro contexto serían terribles, como si fuera lo más normal del mundo (risas). Así pude descubrir que muchas de las cosas que nos hacen humanos tienen una mediación física, y también poder descartar otras ramas pseudocientíficas como el neuromarketing. El borrado de memoria que aparece en mis cuentos, por ejemplo, es un fenómeno que se pueden explicar desde lo físico, con estudios que empezaron en los años cincuenta y sesenta con babosas de mar, y que con el trascurrir de las décadas hicieron  posible llegar a importantes conclusiones sobre las conexiones de los recuerdos y que la mejor forma de volver robusta una memoria es usándola así se generen distorsiones de manera colateral.

En tu crónica para Radio Ambulante abordabas a un personaje crucial que se adelantó a su época al trazar un mapa de las calles de Lima, por lo que en dicha línea me gustaría consultarte por aquellos autores que han cartografiado el futuro y te gustaría recomendar.

En Latinoamérica me gusta mucho lo que ha hecho Liliana Colanzi en su libro “Nuestro mundo muerto”, con distopías estupendas, el argentino Martín Castagnet y el colombiano Christian Romero. Y en Estados Unidos, Adam  Johnson con su libro “Fortune Smiles”, que tiene un par de cuentos maravillosos.

Sebastián Uribe
Lima,1992. Economista de la Universidad de Piura y administrador de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Estuvo en el curso de Economía del BCR. Ha publicado reseñas en El Dominical, El Roommate y Solo Tempestad. Su blog personal es “Un perro romántico”. En la actualidad anda buscando espacio para sus libros.
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  39. GeorgeMinee

    Marzo 6, 2019 at 7:52 am

    Los Blancos, with captain Sergio Ramos suspended after deliberately collecting a yellow card in the first leg, had been looking to build on a slender 2-1 lead from that game in Amsterdam and stay on course for a potential fourth straight European triumph.

    However, after Raphael Varane’s header rattled the crossbar, Ajax raced into an early lead through Hakim Ziyech before Dusan Tadic set up David Neres for a second in the 18th minute.
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    Real Madrid were forced into two changes when Lucas Vazquez and Vinicius Junior went off injured, with substitute Gareth Bale hitting the post just before half-time.

    Ajax looked to have put the tie to bed when Tadic swept in a brilliant third goal just after the hour – which was eventually given following an extensive Video Assistant Referee review to check if the ball had gone out of play in the build-up.

  40. AnthonyLycle

    Marzo 8, 2019 at 5:36 am

    Inter Rapid Wien live score (and video online live stream*) starts on 21.2.2019. at 20:00 UTC time at San Siro/Giuseppe Meazza stadium, Milan, Italy in UEFA Europa League, Knockout stage – Europe. Here on SofaScore livescore you can find all Inter vs Rapid Wien previous results sorted by their H2H matches. Links to Inter vs. Rapid Wien video highlights are collected in the Media tab for the most popular matches as soon as video appear on video hosting sites like Youtube or Dailymotion. We’re not responsible for any video content, please contact video file owners or hosters for any legal complaints tinyurl.

  41. Henrywrili

    Marzo 14, 2019 at 1:31 am

    These three figures — William Rick Singer, Mark Riddell and Rudolph Meredith, respectively — are at the center of the nationwide scandal in which 33 parents are accused of using their wealth and means to help their children game the college admissions system.
    But those three names do not appear anywhere in the complaint text, though the document gives enough clues to make clear who is who. Instead, they are named as Cooperating Witness 1, 2 and 3, and each agreed to plead guilty and to cooperate with the government in the hope of obtaining leniency when they are sentenced, the complaint says.

  42. Jessesuimb

    Marzo 18, 2019 at 2:34 pm

    On how she landed on her direction in life:

    “I always knew I was meant to be working in art, I just never knew how. In school, was so confused and always switched my majors around. In 2015, I decided to take a break from school to help out at home and that’s when I discovered my passion for fashion illustration. I drew/a> an illustration of Jhene Aiko and she liked it on Instagram. It kind of grew from there.”

  43. RichardDed

    Marzo 28, 2019 at 9:52 am

    A court has ruled that the building is illegal, and the €57 million ($64 million) Chateau Diter will now have to be knocked down.
    Property developer Pierre Diter, who owns the chateau in the town of Grasse, in Southern France, has 18 months to raze the building and faces a fine of €200,000 ($226,000), Pierre-Jean Gaury, attorney general at the court of appeal in Aix-en-Provence, told CNN.
    “Patrick Diter was accused of having executed important works on a land without authorization,” said Gaury.

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  47. Nike Air Max 2019

    Abril 18, 2019 at 12:13 pm

    Federal Reserve Chairman Jerome Powell stressed that the global economic growth rate is slowing, and Trump’s chief economic adviser Larry Kudlow also made similar comments on Friday. The White House chief economic adviser Kudlow said that the US economy may need to cut interest rates, there is no inflation problem, the Fed does not need to raise interest rates.

  48. Nelsonlit

    Abril 19, 2019 at 5:13 am

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