COYUNTURA

Opinión: El problema no son Acuña o Guzmán, sino la ley

La ley electoral que tenemos es mala y, en vez de fortalecer la democracia, la debilita. Un claro ejemplo de esto es la salida de César Acuña y Julio Guzmán de la campaña electoral. La decisión del JNE ha reconfigurado el escenario a menos de un mes de la primera vuelta, ganándose el aplauso del algunos  y acusaciones de fraude de parte de otros. El problema, sin embargo, es que de tanto enfocarnos en los casos puntuales de Acuña o Guzmán estamos perdiendo de vista el tema de fondo: la ley electoral requiere urgentemente de un cambio.

Veamos. Por un lado, Acuña fue excluido por regalar dinero en campaña, lo cual efectivamente es malo para la democracia porque los votos no deben comprarse sino ganarse de manera limpia. Pero creer que este problema se arregla excluyendo de postular a los que regalan más de 20 soles es engañarse. Hagamos un experimento mental: imaginemos que estamos a una semana de la segunda vuelta y el candidato que lidera las encuestas regala dinero en un acto proselitista. ¿Puede el JNE excluirlo de la campaña? Hacerlo haría que el contrincante, quien tiene poca chances de triunfar, gane las elecciones. Esto crearía una obvia crisis de legitimidad para el nuevo(a) presidente, y el remedio podría terminar siendo peor que la enfermedad.

¿Cuál es la solución? Una posibilidad es que las sanciones por regalos en campaña inhiban al candidato o partido de participar en elecciones futuras (pero no la actual) o acarreen multas significativas, lo suficientemente grandes como para que incluso alguien con plata como cancha lo piense dos veces antes de violar la ley.

El caso de Julio Guzmán es distinto, pero no por eso menos complejo. Toda esa comparación que señala que se necesita DNI para votar de la misma forma que uno debe tener los papeles en regla para postular es absurda, aunque resulte tan popular en Facebook: el DNI se pide en la mesa de votación para asegurar que votas una sola vez, no porque el bendito carné azul te confiere un derecho que no tienes. El propósito de este requisito es que el ejercicio de tu derecho a votar no disminuya el derecho de otros a hacer lo mismo (tal como la luz roja busca que el ejercicio de tu derecho al tránsito no afecte el derecho de otros). Lo del papeleo para poder postular a la presidencia no protege el derecho de nadie: por el contrario, sólo impone formalismos innecesarios.

Acá una solución: imponer un límite de un mes luego de convocadas las elecciones a la solución de procesos de exclusión , y que estos no se realicen “de oficio” (o sea a iniciativa del JNE) sino sólo a pedido de terceros.

Finalmente, es correcto señal que la ley debe cumplirse, incluso si es mala como en este caso. Pero también es cierto que la ley debe aplicarse de manera uniforme. En ese sentido, que el fujimorismo “pase piola” ante similares acusaciones a las que se hicieron contra Acuña resulta sospechoso, por no decir preocupante. El JNE hizo bien en hacer cumplir la ley, pero también debe asegurarse que se cumpla para todos. Y lo más importante, esa ley es pésima. Cuanto antes la cambiemos será mejor para todos.

Alfonso de la Torre
Economista por la St. Mary´s University en Texas y estudiante en la Maestría de Políticas Públicas de la Universidad de Harvard. Desde chico tiene problemas para diferenciar la derecha de la izquierda.
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