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¿Qué es la hipoteca inversa?

Imagen: Notaria 112

Joaquín y Andrea son una pareja de esposos que llevan casados más de 30 años, solo uno de ellos posee una pensión de jubilación que no alcanza para satisfacer las necesidades de ambos y además son propietarios de un moderno departamento el que pretenden vender para comprar uno más pequeño y tener un capital adicional.

En este contexto entró en vigencia la Ley N° 30741, Ley de la Hipoteca Inversa, que tiene como objeto normar su uso, como un medio que permitirá que las personas complementen sus ingresos económicos, mediante el acceso a un crédito con garantía hipotecaria cuyo pago será exigible recién al fallecimiento del titular o titulares del crédito.

Los principales requisitos que la Ley establece se encuentran descritos en sus artículos 2 y 3 siendo los más resaltantes: a) ser titular o titulares del derecho de propiedad sobre un bien inmueble contra la afectación en garantía hipotecaria del referido inmueble, siendo el reembolso del crédito exigible y la garantía ejecutable al fallecimiento del referido titular o titulares; b) el desembolso del crédito por la entidad autorizada se efectuará en una sola armada o mediante abonos o disposiciones periódicas durante el plazo pactado en el respectivo contrato; c) el derecho a pagar el crédito anticipadamente, parcial o totalmente, sin penalidad alguna; d) al fallecimiento del titular o titulares la entidad autorizada acreedora, con arreglo a las disposiciones y dentro del plazo que se establezca en el reglamento, ofrezca a la sucesión o a los legatarios, para que, facultativamente, cancelen el crédito y, consecuentemente, requieran que la entidad autorizada levante la hipoteca.

La Ley estableció que, además del cumplimiento de las disposiciones contenidas en la Ley N° 29857, el Código de Protección y Defensa del Consumidor y en los reglamentos emitidos por la SBS, la hipoteca inversa está adicionalmente sujeta a las disposiciones sobre transparencia, suministro de información y asesoramiento al cliente que establezca el reglamento.

En su afán de reducir la asimetría de la información y proteger los derechos de los consumidores, la Ley impuso nuevas y mayores obligaciones a los proveedores que ofrecerán este producto en el mercado. Por ejemplo, estableció que el asesoramiento del titular implica que previo al otorgamiento del crédito, este último deberá acreditar que ha recibido asesoría de un profesional especializado, registrado ante la SBS, el mismo que deberá ser ajeno a la entidad que sea parte en la operación. Esto es por un lado positivo si lo que se busca es reducir la asimetría de la información, pero por otro lado el contar con un profesional de ese tipo implica un costo que aún no se establece quién lo asumirá, lo que implica que el crédito se encarecerá.

Finalmente, El INDECOPI y la SBS en el ámbito de sus competencias tienen la obligación de cautelar el cumplimiento de las obligaciones impuestas por la Ley y que de esta forma tanto las entidades autorizadas, como los titulares puedan ofrecer y acceder a este producto con el menor riesgo posible teniendo en cuenta que se encuentra de por medio el patrimonio de las entidades y un bien inmueble que muchas veces es lo único que posee el titular.

Jhordan Pinillos
Abogado especialista en Derecho del Consumidor y estudiante de la Maestría en Derecho de la Empresa de la Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú (PUCP).
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