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Análisis: Extrema derecha muestra su fuerza en Polonia

El 11 de noviembre de 1918, se celebraba con júbilo el restablecimiento de la soberanía del Estado polaco como la Segunda República de Polonia después de la primera guerra mundial. El 11 de noviembre de 2017, más de 60.000 polacos y personas de países vecinos se unieron a marchar en las calles de Varsovia con el llamado “Queremos a Dios”.

Este fenómeno social de la marcha de la extrema derecha, en Polonia, se gestó en el año 2009. La primera demostración tuvo poco eco, pero fue una semilla para lo que crecería exponencialmente hasta el 2017. Su historia muestra la conflictividad y las crecientes brechas presentes en la política y realidad social de Polonia y, quizás, Europa. Ello es evidente cuando, en los años 2013 y 2014, especialmente, las marchas terminaban en violencia, detenciones y grandes disturbios entre los supremacistas y los de izquierda. La situación cambió cuando el partido de derecha, conservador, Ley y Justicia gana las elecciones en el 2015. Aunque el movimiento no es auspiciado oficialmente, tampoco es prohibido por el gobierno.

Los slogans que identifican a la marcha son de índole crítica y nostálgica a una Polonia homogénea, con fuertes referencias a la raza, cultura y religión. “Queremos a Dios” es solo uno de los cantos que refuerzan la idea de Polonia como el “bastión de la fe y la religiosidad” en Europa, frente al “ateísmo impuesto” por la U.E. Dicha corriente de conservadurismo religioso pretende, también, hacer frente a la “islamización” del continente, a lo cual los demostradores ven como una amenaza a la seguridad polaca, aún si menos del 1% del país práctica el islam.

Las fuertes connotaciones xenofóbicas de la marcha se evidencian en un famoso cartel que ha invadido las redes sociales. Éste representa a un terrorista islámico, suicida con un cartel que dice “Soy refugiado”, dentro de un caballo de Troya con el símbolo islámico, en la puerta de Europa y enfrentándose a un soldado con la bandera polaca. Su gran carga simbólica podría ser la muestra más clara de la ideología que presentan las demostraciones.

Dentro de los lemas, se han escuchado gritos a una Polonia conservadora como “Dios, honor y patria”, así como de ideología supremacista blanca y xenófoba como “Polonia, Polonia blanca”, “Lárguense con los refugiados”, y hasta anticomunistas o antirrusos con “A golpe de martillo, a golpe de la hoz, acabemos con la gentuza roja”.

Se quisiera pensar que estas demostraciones son sorprendentes, sin embargo, parece ser una corriente creciente y con, cada vez, mayor suelo fértil. Sería un error decir que esta marcha tiene implicancias meramente nacionales. Las conexiones EE. UU. al invitar a Richard Spencer, líder importante de la corriente supremacista americana, quien tuvo tamaño eco aún sin haber atendido; las cargadas palabras de Trump en su visita a Varsovia: “Queremos a Dios”; la reaparición de los partidos de extrema derecha en el mapa político alemán; las tendencias conservadoras en Europa con Brexit y los conflictos violentos como el reciente en Charlottesville, Virginia, ponen en seria duda si es que el futuro va a más bien romper los puentes de la globalización y la diversidad que se habían peleado tanto por construir.

Lucrecia González-Olaechea
Estudiante de Derecho de la Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú. Ha participado en debates sobre temas de política y relaciones internacionales tanto en el Perú como en el extranjero. Actualmente es parte de la Asociación de Estudios sobre las Naciones Unidas del Perú.
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