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Análisis: Elecciones turcas; Erdogan continua en el poder

En la actualidad, cuando se piensa en Turquía, es natural conectar al país con su presidente, Recep Tayyip Erdogan, quien ha dominado la política turca por 15 años como miembro del partido político “Justicia y Desarrollo” (AKP).

¿Cómo ha logrado esto?

En la mayoría de sus discursos, Erdogan hace referencia a la “vieja Turquía”, una Turquía caracterizada por la acumulación de basura en las calles, por los hospitales públicos abarrotados y por sus inseguras carreteras.

Sin embargo, para Erdogan, esta “vieja Turquía” se ha transformado en un país moderno y con mayor crecimiento económico principalmente debido a sus políticas públicas centradas en la construcción de mega proyectos de infraestructura: nuevas carreteras, nuevos hospitales, una mayor cantidad de aeropuertos, más medios de transporte público etc. El mensaje es claro, Erdogan se proyecta a si mismo con la población turca como el “gran transformador”, como aquella persona que fue capaz de cambiar el rumbo del país.

Es precisamente este mensaje el que ha logrado que Erdogan y su partido político, el AKP, hayan ganado doce victorias electorales en los últimos 16 años, convirtiendo a Erdogan en el líder político que ha servido por más tiempo en la república turca desde su fundación en 1923.

Asimismo, para la periodista y analista Asli Aydintasbas, el éxito de Erdogan también se debe a otro factor, ella menciona que: “Erdogan es un hombre del pueblo, no pertenece a una élite. Hay una parte de la población que ve en Endorgan su propio reflejo”. Por ende, un background común con la mayor parte de la población turca también consolida el apoyo de la misma.  

Es así que, desde sus raíces humildes, no cabe duda que Erdogan ha llevado a Turquía hacia una nueva senda de crecimiento económico, pero:

No todo lo que brilla es oro

Si bien Erdogan ha consolidado el poder a lo largo de su carrera política, sí ha enfrentado a la oposición. En el 2016 hubo un intento fallido de golpe de estado para intentar removerlo del poder, a lo que Erdogan respondió eliminando a sus oponentes a través de despidos masivos de trabajadores del estado y el encarcelamiento de voces críticas.

Además, el mensaje de crecimiento económico y desarrollo con el que Erdogan se vende a si mismo se ha visto afectado por el desaceleramiento económico en Turquía. La lira turca se ha depreciado 20% con respecto al dólar (lo cual afecta las importaciones al volverse más costosas), la inflación se encuentra en 12% y las tasas de interés en aproximadamente 18% (lo cual afecta negativamente el crédito).

Los resultados

Bajo este escenario, Erdogan se ha enfrentado a opositores en la contienda electoral, principalmente a Muharrem Ince, quien consiguió varios simpatizantes vendiéndose a sí mismo como “sangre fresca”.

Sin embargo, esto no basto para que Ince derrotara a Erdogan en las urnas. Pero, la oposición ha alegado que estos resultados han sido manipulados y que aún faltan contabilizar alrededor de la mitad de las ánforas. Más allá del debate sobre la fraudulencia de las elecciones, lo cierto es que Erdogan se mantiene en el poder una vez más.

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