ECONOMÍA

Violencia contra la mujer: Situación en el Perú y repercusiones económicas

Fuente: Todo Noticias Argentina

En lo que va del año, una serie de casos mediáticos de agresión ha despertado el interés público sobre una problemática latente en nuestro país: la violencia contra la mujer. La semana pasada, dos mujeres fueron víctimas de feminicidio por parte de sus ex parejas. En ambos casos, las víctimas habían denunciado previamente a los agresores por violencia familiar. El mes pasado, una joven de 22 años fue quemada en un bus de transporte público en Miraflores. El agresor la acosaba desde hace dos años. Estos son algunos de los casos más recientes, pero la lista podría extenderse a lo largo de varios párrafos.

De acuerdo a la Convención de Belem do Pará, la violencia contra la mujer es “cualquier acción o conducta basada en su género, que cause muerte, daño o sufrimiento físico, sexual o psicológico a la mujer, tanto en el ámbito público como en el privado” (Artículo 1). Esta definición abarca varias manifestaciones de este tipo de violencia, que puede ser física, sexual o psicológica: el feminicidio, la violencia familiar, la violencia sexual, el acoso sexual callejero, entre otros (MIMP, 2016).

A nivel nacional, en 2014, el 32% de las mujeres en el país señalaron haber experimentado violencia física por parte de su pareja en algún momento de su vida; mientras que el 69% manifestó haber sufrido alguna forma de violencia psicológica (MIMP, 2016). Adicionalmente, de los más de 56 mil presuntos delitos de violencia sexual registrados entre 2000 y 2011, el 63% corresponde a víctimas menores de edad. En cuando a feminicidios, según cifras oficiales, en 2017 se registraron 121 casos de feminicidio y 247 tentativas de feminicidio (MIMP, 2018). El 90.5% de las víctimas eran mujeres adultas entre los 18 y los 45 años, y el 75% eran madres. En el 85% de los casos, el perpetrador fue la pareja o ex pareja de la víctima. Los datos para el primer trimestre del 2018 no presentan un mejor escenario: se han cometido 32 feminicidios, 3 más que entre enero y marzo del año pasado.

Desde el punto de vista económico, ¿qué repercusiones trae esta situación en el Perú? Díaz y Miranda (2010), analizan los efectos de la violencia contra la mujer en el mercado laboral. Los autores estiman que ser víctima de este tipo de violencia está asociado a menores ingresos anuales de entre S/1,000 y S/1,500. Además, que la remuneración promedio de mujeres en situación de violencia es el 80% de la que reciben aquellas poco propensas a sufrirla (Díaz y Miranda, 2010). Alcázar y Ocampo (2016), encuentran que tanto la violencia física como psicológica contra la mujer dentro del hogar incrementa la probabilidad de que un niño repita el año académico.

Estos resultados no pretenden frivolizar las consecuencias de la violencia contra la mujer. Por el contrario, su importancia radica en que permiten ampliar nuestra visión sobre el alcance real del problema. El impacto de la violencia contra la mujer no está limitado ni al ámbito personal, ni a una generación, ni a ciertas ramas de estudio. Por el contrario, es un problema con repercusiones complejas que –de una forma u otra– nos afecta a todos.

Bibliografía

Alcázar, L. y Ocampo, D. (2016). Consecuencias de la violencia doméstica contra la mujer en el progreso escolar de los niños y niñas del Perú.

Díaz, R. y Miranda, J. (2010). Aproximación del costo económico y determinantes de la violencia doméstica en el Perú.

MIMP (2018). Estadísticas sobre feminicidio.

MIMP (2016). Violencia basada en género: Marco conceptual para las políticas públicas y la acción del Estado.

Lucía Valdivieso
Estudiante de economía de la Universidad del Pacífico. Amo al Perú y sueño con contribuir a mejorarlo. También me gusta viajar, cocinar y tomar fotos.
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