ECONOMÍA

Una visión para el Metropolitano

Fuente: RPP

El lunes 21 de enero, el alcalde de Lima Jorge Muñoz anunció que se implementarán 35 medidas para mejorar el servicio que brinda el Metropolitano. Entre las enfatizadas en su diálogo con la prensa, destacan: (i) el incremento en el número de buses, (ii) mejoras en la señalización en los paraderos, (iii) la resolución de las controversias arbitrales, (iv) solucionar el tema de las tarifas y (v) optimizar la ventilación en el interior de los buses. Todo esto, previo a reafirmar la precaria situación actual del sistema (El Comercio, 2019).

Efectivamente, en la última encuesta de Lima Cómo Vamos del 2018 el 49.4% de los limeños eligieron al transporte público como el segundo problema más importante que enfrenta la ciudad. La percepción sobre esta problemática se ha mantenido desde el 2010, ubicándose solo por debajo de la seguridad ciudadana (ver Gráfico 1).

A pesar de ser considerado como la opción más rápida para movilizarse por el 57% de limeños, 2 de cada 10 usuarios del Metropolitano califican el servicio como malo o muy malo, siendo los aspectos peores valorados el ordenamiento, el costo y la limpieza  (Lima Cómo Vamos, 2018). Debido a ello, la actual gestión municipal, además de las propuestas ya anunciadas debe plantear medidas que brinden eficiencia y sostenibilidad al sistema.

Experiencias exitosas a nivel mundial han priorizado la implementación de tarifas únicas para el uso de diferentes medios de transporte público motorizado (buses alimentadores, metros, metropolitanos, etc.) y con facilidades para personas priorizadas (niños, adultos mayores, discapacitados y estudiantes). Este es el caso de Barcelona, cuya tarifa trimestral por el uso de cualquier medio de transporte público asciende a 145 euros (S/ 548 aproximadamente), para una población con un PBI per cápita de US$ 30 mil anuales (Mapa Metro Barcelona, 2019). Esto sorprende para el caso de Lima pues, con un PBI per cápita que representa el 50% del de Barcelona, el gasto trimestral promedio de los usuarios que se desplazan mediante el Metropolitano es de S/ 507 aproximadamente  (Universidad del Pacífico, 2017).

En adición, las iniciativas internacionales también se han enfocado en dar una mayor integración a los diferentes medios de transporte empleados por la ciudadanía (motorizado y no motorizado). Así, existen ciclovías priorizadas e interconectadas entre distritos/áreas y estacionamientos públicos al interior de las estaciones de metros o sistemas de tránsito rápido de buses (como el caso del Metropolitano). Esto permite reducir el gasto en el uso de transporte motorizado y disminuye la contaminación urbana (Ping Koh, 2018).

La visión de un Metropolitano integral requiere de una coordinación continua entre las autoridades competentes. Por ejemplo, la comuna limeña deberá coordinar con la reciente creación de la Autoridad de Transporte Urbano para Lima y Callao (ATU) que entre sus funciones destaca la integración física, operacional y tarifaria de los distintos modos del Sistema Integrado de Transporte de Lima y Callao (Briceño, 2018). O inclusive, con las autoridades distritales para integrar las propuestas de movilidad urbana y hacer de la inter-modalidad una propuesta plausible.

 

Así, saludar las propuestas anunciadas no debe limitar ser visionario en el rumbo a seguir por el Metropolitano.

 

Briceño, A. (25 de Noviembre de 2018). ¿Qué es la ATU y en cuánto tiempo se implementará? El Comercio.

El Comercio. (21 de Enero de 2019). Jorge Muñoz anunció que mejorará ventilación de los buses del Metropolitano. El Comercio.

Lima Cómo Vamos. (2010). Encuesta Lima Cómo Vamos 2010. Lima: Lima Cómo Vamos.

Lima Cómo Vamos. (2018). Encuesta Lima Cómo Vamos 2018. Lima: Lima Cómo Vamos.

Mapa Metro Barcelona. (Enero de 2019). Mapa Metro Barcelona 2018-2019. Obtenido de https://www.mapametrobarcelona.com/precio-metro-barcelona.php

Ping Koh, P. (2018). Impacts of bicycle infrastructure: a case study in Singapore. Municipal Engineer, 1-13.

Universidad del Pacífico. (2017). Gasto promedio en desplazamiento. Lima: Marketwin.

 

Alberto Saldarriaga
Wanna be Economista de la UP. Con gran interés en el trabajo de consultoría e investigación de políticas sociales que garanticen un desarrollo económico sostenible, según la coyuntura y entorno de cada país. Además, me considero un melómano, cinéfilo y apreciador del arte.
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