ECONOMÍA

¿Por qué nos debe preocupar aún más el desempleo?

Fuente: América Retail

En los últimos meses se ha visto un incremento del desempleo a nivel de Lima Metropolitana. Esto me conduce al hecho de que una de las principales preocupaciones presentes en el estudio de la macroeconomía contemporánea se refiere a la naturaleza que envuelve al desempleo como un indicador tanto de los agregados macroeconómicos nacionales, así como del estado de los mercados laborales del país.

Por lo general, en los libros de texto introductorios a la macroeconomía, el tratamiento del desempleo se da en una forma muy breve y somera. No obstante, la inclusión de las consecuencias que el desempleo genera en forma individual, a niveles tanto psicológicos como sociales son más amplias, las cuales podrían involucrar al lector a concientizarse sobre la magnitud detrás de los temas que se están tratando.

Así, disciplinas como la sociología o la psicología, llevan su metodología y sus aportes al terreno económico al vislumbrar otros puntos de vista, enriqueciéndolo. Por ejemplo, investigaciones como las de Shapiro y Ahlburg (1982) o Darity y Goldsmith (1996) muestran diferentes implicaciones del desempleo en cuanto a características a nivel individual, lo cual, en términos económicos, podría etiquetarse como los efectos socioeconómicos a nivel micro que ocasiona el desempleo. Por citar, en Shapiro y Ahlburg (1982) se menciona que la correlación existente entre el aumento de la tasa de desempleo y la tasa de suicidios es positiva.

Introduciendo a mayor profundidad la discusión sobre las implicancias del desempleo, los economistas no suelen considerar variables de naturaleza psicológica en los modelos económicos en general. Por ejemplo, en los mercados de trabajo, la variable que usualmente se considera como endógena es el nivel de salarios reales para equilibrar tanto la oferta como la demanda de trabajo. Sin embargo, veríamos que los tradicionales modelos neoclásicos podrían diferir bastante en sus conclusiones si se introdujeran variables psicológicas como endógenas en el análisis.

En Darity y Goldsmith (1996), en el cual consideran, tanto para las cantidades de trabajo ofertado y demandado, una segunda variable denominada “estado psicológico social” (1996:30), aparte de los niveles de salarios reales. Aquí, los autores citados teorizan dos conexiones entre el estado emocional de los trabajadores y el desempleo: primero, el desempleo afecta el bienestar psicológico de los trabajadores en una forma considerable; y, segundo, dicho bienestar tiene una importante influencia en la productividad.

La naturaleza innovadora del modelo radica en que, en un contexto recesivo, una política que estimule a retornar al empleo a su estado inicial de equilibrio sería inefectiva. Ello radica en que se acrecienta la exposición al desempleo por parte de los trabajadores que no han sido despedidos. Variables como los niveles de autoestima, motivación personal y las habilidades sin desarrollar a lo largo del periodo de desempleo influyen seriamente en el trabajador. Esto conlleva a que, en conjunto, el mercado de trabajo no retorna a su posición original y recuerda el concepto de histéresis, por el cual, cuando se “limpia” el mercado, este no retorna a su antiguo nivel de equilibrio, sino que termina en uno distinto.

En resumen, la teoría económica actual muchas veces deja de lado las implicaciones a nivel del individuo en términos psicológicos y sociales. Esto puede afectar de distintas formas el desempeño de la economía, lo cual no puede estar siendo considerado adecuadamente por los economistas al enfocarse más en variables propiamente económicas. Una visión un poco más interdisciplinaria nos ayudaría a analizar mejor y entender, asimismo, las dimensiones en las cuales impacta el desempleo en la economía y, sobre todo, en el ser humano.

Fuentes:

DARITY, W. y A. GOLDSMITH (1996) Social psychology, unemployment and macroeconomics. The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 121-140.

SHAPIRO.M.O y D.A. AHLBURG (1982) Suicide: the ultimate cost of unemployment. Journal of Post Keynesian Economics, 276-280.

Jorge Condeña
Futuro economista convencido que el bienestar social da una mayor utilidad que el bienestar personal. Me agrada investigar y escribir sobre los temas que conciernen al desarrollo del Perú.
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