ECONOMÍA

El sector financiero en la era digital: Una fotografía a las Fintech en Perú

Fuente: Crowdfounder.mx

Las interacciones humanas se han visto fuertemente  influenciadas por los cambios tecnológicos en las últimas décadas, desde la forma en la que nos relacionamos con los demás hasta cómo se llevan a cabo los negocios en el mundo. El sector financiero no ha sido indistinto a estos cambios.

¿Qué es una Fintech?

Una FinTech -de las palabras en inglés “Financial Technology”- es una Start-up que utiliza la tecnología para ofrecer servicios financieros existentes a costos menores o crear soluciones a necesidades financieras basadas en la tecnología (PwC, 2016).

Existen 12000 FinTechs en todo el mundo y comparten las características de ser ágiles, innovadoras y enfocarse en segmentos individuales de la cadena de valor. Las inversiones en estas nuevas empresas ascendieron a más de 19.000 millones de dólares en 2015. (Drummer, Jerenz, Siebelt & Thaten, 2016).

Un número particularmente grande de FinTechs operan en los EE.UU., Reino Unido e Israel y algunas de ellas son cada vez más activas en distintos mercados internacionales simultáneamente. Varias FinTechs, como Funding Circle, SoFi, Lending Club y Prosper ya están valoradas en más de USD 1 mil millones por sus inversores.

¿Cómo estamos nosotros?

El mercado pe
ruano de Fintech es relativamente joven y aún poco desarrollado en comparación con nuestros pares de América Latina; sin embargo, el año 2016 estuvo lleno de nuevos entrantes y las perspectivas para lo que resta del 2017 son aún mejores. Estas son las Fintech que actualmente mantienen operaciones en Perú o están ad portas de hacerlo:

  • Perú FintechAfluenta: Redde finanzas colaborativas que administra préstamos y créditos. Las tasas de interés para créditos son menores que la del sistema bancario y los acreedores, a su vez, obtienen mejores tasas de las que se ofrecen por depósitos a plazo o ahorros.
  • Latin Fintech (Peruana): Otorga préstamos de consumo en línea. Utiliza inteligencia artificial para evaluar rápidamente el riesgo crediticio y desembolsar el dinero en minutos.
  • Lenddo: Scoring de usuarios no bancarizados. Opera desde el 2015 en Perú y su principal característica es que todo el proceso se realiza a través de la web y utiliza las redes sociales para saber qué tan confiable es un cliente.
  • FiT (Peruana): Cuenta con la aplicación “Kalifika” que permite a los usuarios tener un score crediticio mediante el uso de data real. Si el score es favorable, se podría usar para subastar su deuda entre las diversas entidades bancarias.
  • BaraTasa (Peruana): Scoring crediticio similar a FiT. No obstante, en lugar de brindar un score, BaraTasa brinda tasas de interés individuales, según el monto y plazo del crédito requerido.
  • EFL: Score psicométrico de crédito. Actualmente trabajan con entidades financieras permitiendo aceptar o verificar los créditos que fueron rechazados inicialmente utilizando un método de evaluación tradicional.
  • Culqi (Peruana): Trabaja con dos aplicaciones gratuitas disponibles en su página web: “CulqiPOS”, dirigida a las empresas y “Culqi”, una billetera digital donde los usuarios almacenan sus tarjetas y realizan pagos con un sistema de códigos QR.
  • Quant (Peruana): Servicio de consultoría virtual que brinda un diagnóstico para la gestión del riesgo de tipo de cambio. Se dirigen a pequeñas y medianas empresas que no cuentan con el conocimiento técnico para administrar riesgos financieros.
  • Segurosimple.com (Peruana): Corredor de seguros virtual, en particular para el rubro de seguros vehiculares. Compara los costos entre diferentes aseguradoras y simplifica la contratación de una póliza de seguros.
  • Kambista (Peruana): Web que realiza operaciones de cambio de moneda en tiempo real, permite obtener tasas más competitivas y evitar la inseguridad de realizar el cambio de divisas de manera presencial.

¿Hacia dónde vamos?

Mientras que en el mundo se debate sobre el rol de las Fintech como reemplazo del sistema bancario tradicional (Drummer et al., 2016), nosotros estamos un poco lejos de esa realidad. El nivel de informalidad de la economía peruana y el bajo uso de los servicios financieros -medido por el porcentaje de deudores en el sistema financiero (Ramírez & Alfageme, 2016)- son los principales obstáculos para el crecimiento de las Fintech y su relevancia en el mercado peruano.

Sin embargo, el panorama no es tan negativo como parece, los servicios ofrecidos por las Fintech actuales están ligados a la forma en la que nuestra economía se desarrolla. De acuerdo con Kashigawi (2016), las Fintech permiten la inclusión financiera al incrementar la oferta de productos y servicios directamente a los consumidores, usar información alternativa y permitir la personalización del producto según cada cliente.


Ramírez, N. & Alfageme, A. (2016). Acceso a servicios financieros de los hogares en el Perú. Lima: Revista Moneda. Obtenido de: http://www.bcrp.gob.pe/docs/Publicaciones/Documentos-de-Trabajo/2016/documento-de-trabajo-15-2016.pdf

Kashigawi, R. (2016). FinTech and Financial Inclusion. Nomura Research Institute. Obtenido de: https://www.nri.com/~/media/PDF/global/opinion/lakyara/2016/lkr2016248.pdf

PwCFinTech. (2016). Questions & Answers about FinTech. PwC Financial Services Institute. Obtenido de: https://www.pwc.com/us/en/financial-services/publications/viewpoints/assets/pwc-fsi-what-is-fintech.pdf

Drummer D., Jerenz A., Siebelt P. & Thaten M. (2016). FinTech – Challenges and Opportunities. McKinsey&Company. Obtenido de: https://www.mckinsey.de/files/160525_fintech_english.pdf

Piero Córdova
Economista de la Universidad ESAN. Trabaja en Consultoría para la Industria Financiera en EY y sueña con cambiar el mundo un corazón a la vez.
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