ECONOMÍA

Pedro Sánchez, ¿nuevo adhesivo para una España fragmentada?

Fuente: iProfessional

La España de hoy: nuevo Presidente, mismos retos y muchas reformas por implementar. ¿Podrá el nuevo presidente lograr estabilizar la crisis política de su país y repuntar por fin la situación económica y social?

Por primera vez desde el regreso de la democracia en España, un partido político es condenado por la Justicia y un presidente es destituido de su cargo por el Congreso. En medio de esta crisis política, una economía fragmentada y una población que suplica mejores condiciones sociales, llega Pedro Sánchez, un político que no logró ser presidente por votación electoral, pero hoy lo es luego de la censura a Mariano Rajoy. ¿Podrá ser él quien aleje a España del final de la cola europea en indicadores económicos y sociales?

Aprobada la moción de censura, Pedro Sánchez juramentó ante el rey Felipe VI como el nuevo presidente de España. Y es que las investigaciones por corrupción no solo vienen afectando a América Latina, sino que han logrado desestabilizar incluso a economías como la española. Así, Mariano Rajoy, líder del Partido Popular (PP), se ha convertido en el primer presidente en ser destituido por el Congreso, luego de que su partido fuera condenado por beneficiarse de actos de corrupción.

Aunque estas investigaciones golpearon al gobierno de Rajoy por más de una década, ha sido el caso Gürtel (que significa correa en alemán) el que ha llevado al PP a su situación más crítica en la historia. La Justicia española condenó al PP por sostener acuerdos con el grupo empresarial de Francisco Correa y por crear una «caja b» con la que financió sus campañas electorales. Ante ello, frases como «no se va, le hemos echado» dejan clara la incasable indignación de un pueblo que está cansado de los abusos de poder.

«Ha sido un honor dejar una España mejor de la que encontré», dijo Mariano Rajoy en su último discurso como presidente. Sin embargo, las cifras no riman. En el 2015, España fue uno de los países con mayor economía informal e ilegal entre los países de la Unión Europea (UE), lo que hace sentido con que en el 2017 sus gastos hayan superado sus ingresos más que en cualquier otro país europeo. Además, aunque sus cifras de desempleo mejoraron en el 2017 (16.5%), continúan casi duplicando la media de la Unión Europea (8.7%) e incluso la de América Latina (8.4%). Por ello, hoy el 55% de los jóvenes no tienen trabajo, y deben buscar empleos en otras partes de Europa o América.

Todo ello sumado a una crisis social que arremese España. «Error 404: Democracia not found» es uno de los múltiples mensajes que se han leído en pancartas de movimientos ciudadanos. Y las súplicas no son descabelladas. El nivel de desigualdad, por ejemplo, ha llegado a cifras alarmantes, situando a España entre los siete países con peores indicadores de bienestar social de la UE. Así, el 10% más rico de la población concentra más riqueza que el 90% restante, en tanto el 20% más rico gana 6,6 veces más que el 20% más pobre. Por su parte, la crisis independentista no ha terminado su curso y viene levantando sospechas sobre el desastre económico que implicaría sobre Cataluña y toda España, por la fiebre que ha originado en el mercado financiero y empresarial.

Pedro Sánchez, líder del Partido Socialista Obrero Español (PSOE), llega entonces con una apuesta renovada. Su nuevo gabinete —que hace historia por ser de mayoría femenina y contar con un ministro abiertamente gay— busca fortalecer la igualdad de género, promover una industrialización ecológica y rescatar a los jóvenes del desempleo. Sánchez tendrá en sus manos una oportunidad histórica de encaminar a España hacia la unión, crecimiento sostenible, formalización y tolerancia cero a la corrupción.

¿La era Sánchez tendrá la fórmula para devolverle el respiro al país europeo? Lamentablemente no hay certeza sobre eso. Aunque su ideología socialista está alineada con los principales desafíos de España, el nuevo presidente enfrentará una batalla dura. Primero, porque carece de mayoría parlamentaria, por lo que los resultados de su gestión dependerán de sus estrategias políticas. Segundo, porque lidiará con una mayoría a quien le arrebató el líder político. Finalmente, porque la poca aprobación de los políticos ha llegado a sus cifras más bajas (apenas el 4,8% consideró a comienzos del año que la política española mejoraría). Lo cierto es que hoy España necesita apoyar al nuevo gobierno, por el bien de su país y de Europa. Por su parte, el actual presidente tendrá el reto de armar el rompecabezas de una España fragmentada, cuyas piezas piden a gritos ser salvadas.

Alejandra Guardia Muguruza
Economista de la Universidad del Pacífico y consultora de APOYO Consultoría. Gran interés por la investigación, políticas públicas y proyectos de inversión. Apasionada por la argumentación y el voluntariado. Sueña con un Perú clasificado al mundial del bienestar y desarrollo. Disfruta viajar por el mundo, pero, en especial, admirar cada rincón peruano.
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