Opinión: La pobreza multidimensional en el Perú

Fuente: Internet

Existen diversos métodos para medir la pobreza en un país, específicamente, en el Perú se utiliza el clásico método monetario. Esto identifica como pobre al hogar cuyos recursos no alcanzan para cubrir la canasta básica socialmente aceptada, la misma que incluye la satisfacción de necesidades principales como alimentos, vivienda, educación, vestido, salud, etc.

En la actualidad, este método, aunque común, no es eficiente para medir la pobreza en el país, pues parte de datos aparentes y momentáneos, obteniendo como efecto directo que no se identifique la tasa real de pobreza, invisibilizando así a un porcentaje de peruanos que sí serían incluidos aplicando otro método más eficiente: el dimensional, que incluye indicadores diversos e integrales.

Con el fin de entender mejor la aplicación de ambos métodos, analicemos el caso de Andrés quien estudió hasta quinto de primaria y es padre de dos niñas, además, vive en un AA.HH. en el Cono Norte. Él empezó a trabajar como vendedor en una empresa de repuestos, con el pasar del tiempo, fue ascendido a ser subjefe de inventario, ganando S/. 2 000 durante tres años, gracias a la confianza que le tenía su supervisor. El dinero cubría las necesidades básicas de la familia, sin embargo, todo cambió cuando despidieron a su supervisor y Andrés tuvo que volver a su puesto de vendedor, percibiendo, a veces, un sueldo incluso por debajo del mínimo.

En este caso, por un lado, aplicando el método monetario, el hogar de Andrés no fue considerado como pobre durante los tres años que este percibió S/. 2 000, puesto que en ese periodo, sus ingresos alcanzaban a cubrir la canasta básica; sin embargo, sucede que esa información recabó la captura de un factor meramente temporal: su ingreso, que varió dramáticamente, cuando Andrés tuvo que regresar a su antiguo puesto de trabajo. Allí sus recursos le fueron insuficientes, por lo cual, su hogar pasó a ser considerado como pobre.

Por otro lado, tenemos el método multidimensional, el cual abarca tres dimensiones y, dentro de estas, diversos indicadores a detallar: 1) educación (escolaridad familiar, matricula infantil), 2) salud (asistencia al centro de salud, deficiencia calórica) y 3) condiciones de vida (electricidad, agua, desagüe, piso de la vivienda, combustible de cocina). Aplicando este método, el hogar de Andrés hubiese sido evaluado en estos diversos indicadores como, por ejemplo, el nivel educativo de Andrés, el acceso que tiene su hogar a centros de salud cercanos, si cuenta con agua potable, entre otros, y no solo tomando en cuenta los ingresos que este percibía.  De ahí que no sería tan fácil determinar si su hogar era pobre o no, cuando percibía los S/. 2 000.

El caso del hogar de Andrés es el de muchos hogares peruanos quienes en un momento dado aumentan sus recursos, pero que no solo por ese hecho deberían ser descartados como hogares pobres, pues el índice monetario debe ser solo un factor a considerar en el análisis de pobreza, mas no el único ni el determinante.

Así, con el fin de visibilizar a un porcentaje de peruanos que no están siendo incluidos en la tasa de pobreza, es prioritario que en el Perú se aplique el método multidimensional, que nos brinda indicadores integrales, para finalmente implementar políticas públicas más precisas frente a la lucha contra este fenómeno social.


Isabel Cajavilca
Estudiante de Derecho en la PUCP. Le fascina la estrecha relación entre la Economía y el Derecho como medio para entender y mejorar las política públicas.

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