ECONOMÍA

Opinión: El reto de legitimar la recaudación municipal – Caso La Victoria

Fuente: Facebook MLV

El incremento de la recaudación tributaria en el mes de enero en La Municipalidad de La Victoria ha causado un gran revuelo en el Perú. Con casi un 50% más de lo recaudado en el mismo mes en el año 2018, dicha municipalidad, bajo la dirección de su alcalde George Forsyth, ha alcanzado un récord histórico de 11 millones de soles por pagos de impuestos. Esto nos lleva a preguntarnos: ¿cuál es la razón detrás de este cambio en la actitud ciudadana?

Primero, debemos preguntarnos: ¿a qué se destina el dinero recaudado? La respuesta teórica es sencilla: el objetivo consiste principalmente en mejorar la calidad de vida dentro de una comunidad, con ello nos referimos al financiamiento de servicios públicos que realiza cada municipalidad, por ejemplo: inversión en seguridad, limpieza pública, alumbrado público, entre otros. Pero vamos a la realidad: ¿estos objetivos teóricos se cumplen? La respuesta es generalmente negativa.

Una investigación realizada por el Instituto de Opinión Pública –PUCP, en el año 2017, nos da luces acerca de la confianza que tienen los peruanos en sus autoridades municipalidades. A la pregunta ¿Qué tan de acuerdo o en desacuerdo está usted con la siguiente afirmación: Cuando existen problemas en mi barrio o localidad confío en mi alcalde distrital para darles solución? Se evidencia que en todos los niveles socioeconómicos, más del 50 % estuvo en desacuerdo con tal afirmación.

Al notar que sus comunidades no progresan, que sus alcaldes se ven implicados en investigaciones sobre corrupción o que, ni bien asumen sus funciones ediles, se aumentan el sueldo, la desconfianza hacia estos crece y, en consecuencia, pierden legitimidad.

Segundo, en este contexto de ineficiencia y corrupción, no debemos olvidar que las personas responden a estímulos externos en la toma de sus decisiones. Siendo muy comunes en el Perú frases como: “para qué voy a pagar mis impuestos, si el alcalde se va a llenar los bolsillos con mi dinero”. Si bien esa afirmación no constituye una razón válida para no pagar impuestos, nos permite evidenciar que la recaudación en el Perú solo se sostiene debido a las medidas coactivas que impone el Estado, mas no porque exista una cultura tributaria.

Y es aquí donde reside el problema, el cobro de los impuestos no debe tener su único fundamento en la frase: “porque así dice la ley”, estos cobros necesitan ser legitimados en la sociedad, con el fin de fomentar una cultura tributaria sostenible a largo plazo. La única forma de hacerlo es demostrando que la recaudación sí cumple con sus objetivos prácticos.

Un ejemplo de esto es el trabajo diligente que viene realizando George Forsyth, en la Municipalidad de La Victoria, las personas han notado los cambios y retribuyen ello pagando sus impuestos, pues tienen la confianza de que el dinero recaudado será correctamente invertido.

Por todo lo antes mencionado, este cambio liderado por el alcalde La Victoria debe ser replicado en las demás municipalidades distritales del Perú, con el fin de legitimar la recaudación de impuestos y sentar las bases de la ansiada cultura tributaria que tanto nos hace falta como país.

Isabel Cajavilca
Estudiante de Derecho en la PUCP. Le fascina la estrecha relación entre la Economía y el Derecho como medio para entender y mejorar las política públicas.
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