Mercado de seguros y poblaciones de bajos ingresos


El nivel de acceso que tiene la población a servicios financieros ha ido en aumento con el pasar de los años. Si centramos nuestra atención en el sector de seguros, veremos que este ha ido creciendo a un promedio anual de 16% desde el 2006. A pesar de esta evolución, la penetración de los seguros en nuestro país es una de las más bajas de Sudamérica, representando solo el 1.5% del PBI total.

Un estudio realizado por la SBS en 2012 muestra que la baja penetración de los seguros en el mercado peruano se debe a que gran parte de la población no tiene acceso a ellos. Aquí nos referimos a los segmentos de menores ingresos (C, D y E). Un estudio realizado por la compañía de seguros La Positiva en 2011 muestra que el 77,5% de la población total no gozaba con ningún tipo de cobertura de seguros. Dentro de muchos factores, uno de los motivos que mantienen alejados a estos segmentos de la población son sus preferencias y su percepción sobre el mercado de seguros.

Básicamente, las personas dentro de estos segmentos consideran el seguro como un producto intangible y sin beneficios claros. Más aún, el 60% de encuestados por DATUM en 2012 manifestó que confía poco en las compañías de seguros. Esta sensación tiene su origen en el desconocimiento de la manera en que opera el negocio de los seguros, ya que se tiene la idea de que estos obtienen sus utilidades evitando pagar los siniestros.

Los mecanismos que tienen las personas de los segmentos C, D y E para hacer frente a eventos inesperados que afectan el hogar son sus ahorros o préstamos informales. En específico, para ocasiones como enfermedades graves, fallecimiento de un familiar, deslizamiento de tierras, lluvias intensas, inundaciones, vandalismo y terrorismo y accidentes laborales. Sin embargo, el problema es que la tasa de ahorro de esta población no es constante. Así, suele ocurrir que el monto ahorrado no es suficiente para asumir todos los gastos que se presentan. Esto suele suceder con mayor frecuencia en casos de fallecimiento de un familiar y enfermedades graves. En dichas situaciones, se recurre a préstamos, colectas de fondos dentro de sus comunidades o aportes dentro de la familia nuclear.

Como vemos, hay mucho mercado al cual la industria de seguros no ha llegado. Una alternativa para poblaciones de las características de los segmentos C, D y E son los microseguros. Los cuales no son otra cosa que productos ofrecidos por las empresas de seguros, pero con condiciones favorables a poblaciones de bajos recursos. Según información de la SBS, el mercado de microseguros está en crecimiento y empezando a diversificarse, pero aún es necesaria la mejora del marco que los regula.


(Fuente: Superintendencia de Banca, Seguros y AFP, Access to Insurance Iniciative, & Multilateral Investment Fund. 2014. Fomento del acceso a los seguros en el Perú: Cambios en el entorno de los seguros en beneficio de la población poco y no atendida. Datum International. 2012. Estudio sobre el grado de conocimiento y percepción de los productos y servicios de seguros. Lima: SBS.)

Andrés Rosas
Economista PUCP. Disfruto investigando sobre los temas que más afectan a nuestra economía. Recontra futbolero y nadador por afición. Tengo la certeza de que la lectura es la cura para nuestros problemas.

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