ECONOMÍA

Artículo: La simplificación administrativa de las licencias municipales

Nursing in practice

El Perú ocupa el puesto 63/140 en el Índice de Competitividad Global elaborado por el World Economic Forum (WEF). También, está en el puesto 68/190 en el ránking Doing Business del Banco Mundial. Este último resultado no es alentador, pues representa una caída de 10 puestos en consideración al año anterior. A nivel global, nos falta bastante para ser una economía competitiva.

Una de nuestras principales carencias es, paradójicamente, una abundancia: la regulación gubernamental. Si bien existen avances en la simplificación administrativa (por ejemplo, el Banco de la Nación permite pagar vía web), aún hay varios desafíos. En el Índice del WEF obtuvimos 2.5 de 7 en la categoría “Carga de la regulación gubernamental” y nos ubicamos en el puesto 128.

Aprobación de 10 Procedimientos Administrativos de Licencia de Funcionamiento

Sin embargo, una buena noticia apareció hace algunos días. La Presidencia del Consejo de Ministros (PCM) publicó el Decreto Supremo N°45-2019-PCM, el cual aprueba 10 Procedimientos Administrativos de Licencia de Funcionamiento a cargo de municipalidades provinciales y distritales. Las licencias de funcionamiento emitidas por las municipalidades son trámites importantes al permitir el desarrollo de actividades comerciales, mientras aseguran el cumplimiento de los requisitos establecidos.  Si los requerimientos para obtener la licencia son poco claros, cambian drásticamente de gestión a gestión. También, sucede que  son muy costosos, se atenta contra el desarrollo económico y la competitividad.

Además, mientras más complejo sea el trámite, existe más lugar para la aparición de corrupción. Un caso que observamos esta semana tuvo lugar en La Victoria, donde se descubrió una tienda que apenas contaba con 20 cm de profundidad y licencia válida para operar de diciembre de 2018.

Es debido a todos estos retos que se necesitaba uniformizar y simplificar los trámites para la obtención de licencia municipal. Gracias al Decreto Supremo N°45-2019-PCM, ahora las municipalidades no podrán solicitar requisitos innecesarios. Solo estarán facultadas para brindar mejores condiciones (ya sea en plazos o requerimientos).  Así, se logra ordenar el universo del licenciamiento municipal y ganar competitividad. Lo anterior, puesto que los empresarios e inversionistas podrán obtener sus permisos más rápidamente, dinamizando la economía.

Considerando que en el 2015 las municipalidades provinciales y regionales otorgaron 3.7% menos licencias en comparación al 2014, era necesaria acción en el sector. Esta propuesta se encuentra en el Informe de Competitividad elaborado por el Consejo Privado de la Competitividad.

Esperemos que se sigan materializando las diversas propuestas existentes para elevar la competitividad de nuestro país en beneficio de todos los peruanos.

 

 

Alfredo Dancuart
Estudiante de economía de la Universidad del Pacífico. Me interesa la gestión pública y la investigación, y creo que siempre es bueno integrar herramientas de otras disciplinas para un mejor análisis económico. Me gustan las humanidades, las ciencias sociales y la música (si es Soda Stereo, mejor).
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