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Marzo y el pago de impuestos

Fuente: Peru21

La llegada de marzo pone fin al verano. Los niños vuelven al colegio, las universidades inician clases y el horario de verano se acaba en las empresas (con suerte) donde se implementa. Adicionalmente, marzo trae consigo una responsabilidad más: el pago de impuestos.

¿Por qué es importante el pago de impuestos?

Los impuestos son la principal fuente de ingresos del Presupuesto General del Estado peruano, por lo tanto sirven para impulsar el desarrollo de nuestro país. En teoría, los tributos que pagan los contribuyentes deben retornar a la comunidad bajo la forma de obras públicas, servicios públicos y programas sociales.

Los impuestos en el Perú

Pese a la importancia teórica de los impuestos, estos se ven afectados por dos grandes problemas en el Perú: baja recaudación y poca eficiencia del gasto público. Es díficil determinar cuál de los dos problemas origina al otro, ya que ambos están estrechamente relacionados.

La baja recaudación se debe, principalmente, a la informalidad presente en la economía de nuestro país. En el año 2016, el INEI reportó que 6,66 millones de empresas y 73% de los empleos eran informales. Eso implica, entre muchas otras cosas, que ni esas empresas ni esos trabajadores pagan impuestos.

Por otro lado, un gran obstáculo en la formalización de la economía es la poca eficiencia del gasto público. La mayoría de la población no percibe que el pago de impuestos se traduzca en una mejora de los servicios públicos: educación, salud, seguridad, entre otros. En ese sentido, si el pago de impuestos no retorna a la comunidad, los beneficios de la formalización se diluyen y son opacados por la informalidad.

Otros factores que afectan la recaudación

Es necesario resaltar que, en el año 2017, la recaudación se vio afectada por factores adicionales a la informalidad. Entre estos factores se encuentran: la menor actividad económica, los efectos del Niño Costero (FEN), el impacto de los casos de corrupción sobre la actividad económica, el menor flujo de ingresos tributarios extraordinarios, entre otros.

Perú vs América Latina

Por último, los problemas del Perú con respecto a los impuestos se pueden contextualizar en relación a otros países de América Latina. La recaudación de nuestro país, medida en términos de su presión tributaria (ingresos tributarios/PBI), fue la cuarta más baja de la región en el 2016, según la Organización para la Cooperación y el Desarrollo Económicos (OCDE). La presión tributaria del país cerró 6,6 puntos porcentuales por debajo del promedio de los países de América Latina y el Caribe (22,7%) y casi 18 puntos porcentuales debajo del promedio de los países de la OCDE (34,3%).

En conclusión, el pago de impuestos en el Perú involucra muchos problemas entre los que destacan la baja recaudación y la poca eficiencia del gasto público. A pesar de que se puede discutir cuál problema origina al otro, es más importante discutir cómo darles solución con la finalidad de impulsar el desarrollo del país, que es, al fin y al cabo, la finalidad de la recaudación de impuestos.

Fuentes:

El Comercio: El Perú está a la zaga en recaudación en América Latina

El Comercio: INEI: Los impresionantes números del sector informal peruano

Gestión: Sunat: Recaudación tributaria aumentó 12.6% en diciembre, pero cayó durante el año

SUNAT: Cultura tributaria y aduanera. ¿Para qué sirven los impuestos?

SUNAT: Cultura tributaria y aduanera. Rol social de la tributación

Andrea Pinedo
Economista de la Universidad del Pacífico. Trabajo en el sector público en temas de innovación social. Me encanta viajar, la historia y la fotografía.
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