ECONOMÍA

Los hijos del Auge

Fuente: RPP

El estudio Niños del Milenio fue diseñado en 2001 para entender de qué manera y en qué magnitud la pobreza infantil afecta a una muestra de niños y niñas de 4 países, entre ellos el Perú. Se tomaron encuestas en diferentes momentos a dos grupos divididos en cohorte mayor (nacidos en 1994) y menor (nacidos en 2001) que permitieron comparar los niveles de desarrollo en diferentes momentos de su vida. Para el Perú, los resultados en materia de educación muestran mejoras innegables, pero que no se traducen en la reducción de las brechas e inequidades que siempre han existido en el país.

Para iniciar, es importante saber que los grupos analizados corresponden a peruanos que nacieron en una época en la que el Perú se encontraba en reconstrucción luego de la tumultuosa década de los 80. El buen desempeño económico reflejado en una alta tasa de crecimiento de PBI, una tasa de inflación baja, mayores niveles de gasto público tuvo como resultado una disminución de la tasa de pobreza en más de la mitad entre el 2001 y el 2015 (de 54,8% a 21,8%). Lo mismo para la tasa de desnutrición crónica infantil, la cual se redujo de 31,2% (2000) a 14,6% (2015). Los niños de la cohorte mayor y menor son los receptores de los beneficios de una economía boyante: verdaderos “hijos del auge”.

No obstante, a nivel educativo, se siguen observando bajos resultados en promedios de rendimientos escolares, así como altos niveles de inequidad educativa. Esto se observa en la matrícula tardía en los primeros años de vida en ambos grupos, con niños que son matriculados recién a los 5 años en lugar de comenzar a los 3. Sin embargo, se observan rendimientos escolares mayores (que aún siguen siendo poco satisfactorios) para la cohorte más joven como resultado de matrículas menos tardías que sus pares de la cohorte mayor, lo que representa una mejora.

Un motivo por el cual se exhiben rendimientos escolares paupérrimos es que las oportunidades de aprendizaje se distribuyen de manera inequitativa. Esto significa que aquellos estudiantes de zonas rurales no pueden acceder a la misma calidad educativa que los que viven en zonas urbanas. Lejos de mejorar la calidad y repotenciar la educación en el ámbito rural para nivelar las diferencias con el ámbito urbano, el sistema educativo sirve para perpetuar las brechas que ya existen.

Estos datos nos permiten saber que si bien es cierto el auge que el Perú ha vivido en materia económica ha traído estabilidad, aún existen aspectos cruciales que no han cambiado de manera verdadera. Podríamos pensar en un auge nominal, mas no en uno real si se quiere. Sin duda, las conclusiones a las que puede llegarse a partir de los 15 años de observación de Niños del Milenio exceden la longitud de este artículo, pero los resultados, que no solo se limitan a educación, permiten ampliar nuestro entendimiento del Perú de una forma que va más allá de las cifras en un papel.

Fuentes:

  • Young Lives, Instituto Nacional de Investigación Nutricional y GRADE
  • 2018: ¿Qué hemos aprendido del estudio longitudinal Niños del Milenio en el Perú? Síntesis de hallazgos. Primera edición, Lima, junio de 2018.
Andrés Rosas
Economista PUCP. Disfruto investigando sobre los temas que más afectan a nuestra economía. Recontra futbolero y nadador por afición. Tengo la certeza de que la lectura es la cura para nuestros problemas.
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