ECONOMÍA

Lima Metropolitana: Encerrados e inseguros

Fuente: El Comercio

A inicios de abril del presente año, se publicó el Ranking de Calidad de Vida de la consultora Mercer sobre grandes centros urbanos, ubicando a Lima en el puesto 124 de 231 ciudades a nivel mundial. Tan solo en comparación con las 11 ciudades de Su

damérica evaluadas, la capital del país se posiciona en la octava posición, por debajo de ciudades como Montevideo (77), Buenos Aires (91), Santiago de Chile (92), Asunción (115), Río de Janeiro (118), Quito (122) y Sao Paulo (123) (Sausa, 2018). La relevancia del ranking permite a empresas de renombre internacional reconocer los potenciales destinos para realizar nuevas inversiones y enviar a sus trabajadores para que las desarrollen (Mercer, 2018).

Como explica el representante de Mercer en Perú, Gabriel Regalado, estos resultados se deben a la mala planificación urbana y la inseguridad ciudadana. De hecho, entre setiembre de 2017 y febrero de 2018, el 88.8% de limeños mayores a 15 años siente que la inseguridad ciudadana va a persistir en los próximos 12 meses (INEI, 2018). Esta escalofriante cifra contrasta con el dualismo entre la alta cantidad de rejas y la baja cantidad de efectivos de serenazgo en los distritos de la metrópolis.

En Lima metropolitana el 39.9% de familias ha optado por instalar tranqueras y rejas en las calles aledañas a sus viviendas para protegerse (INEI, 2016). Más aún, según un informe realizado por ASPEC (2010), el 91% de las rejas instaladas no están autorizadas por la municipalidad y persisten más por falta de interés de fiscalización y supervisión, que por falta de recursos en las municipalidades distritales. Entre los distritos con mayor incidencia delictiva y con mayor cantidad de rejas por calle destacan: La Molina (209), Ate Vitarte (189), San Miguel (122) y San Martín de Porres (109).

Por otro lado, aquellos distritos con mayor cantidad de personas por efectivo de serenazgo están: San Martín de Porres (3,421), Rímac (2,687), Villa el Salvador (6,299) y San Juan de Lurigancho (4,976) (INEI, 2016). Además, de los distritos listados, la mayor cantidad de robos en la metrópolis se dan en San Juan de Lurigancho, con el 8.3% de los robos de Lima, Ate Vitarte (8.1%) y San Martín de Porres (5%). En general, aquellos distritos con la mayor cantidad de rejas vienen siendo los más inseguros.

Lo preocupante del asunto es el reducido presupuesto asignado a seguridad vecinal y comunal que realizan los gobiernos municipales de la capital. Si bien es cierto que desde el 2015 el presupuesto para seguridad ciudadana se ha incrementado en 8% promedio anual, tan solo el 6% del presupuesto total para la metrópolis está asignado a seguridad ciudadana. De este total, se ejecutó el 70%, una participación que se ha mantenido constante en los últimos 2 años (SIAF-MEF).

El tema de la inseguridad ciudadana no es para nada novedoso, sino que ha sido una constante en la problemática de nuestra metrópolis. La falta de planificación y coordinación entre la municipalidad metropolitana y los municipios distritales limitan la calidad de vida de la población. Por lo mismo, surgen medidas aisladas, como rejas y tranqueras que terminan encerrando al problema y con él, a nosotros.

Bibliografía

Sausa, M. (7 de Abril de 2018). Lima entre las ciudades con peor calidad de vida en Sudamérica. Perú21.

Mercer. (2018). Quality of Living City Ranking. Mercer.

INEI. Estadísticas de Seguridad Ciudadana: Septiembre 2017 – Febrero 2018. Lima. Medidas de seguridad adoptadas por la comunidad organizada. Lima: Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática. Seguridad Ciudadana. Lima: Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática.

ASPEC. (2010). Lima entre rejas. Lima: Asociacion Peruana de Consumidores y Usuarios.

Alberto Saldarriaga
Wanna be Economista de la UP. Con gran interés en el trabajo de consultoría e investigación de políticas sociales que garanticen un desarrollo económico sostenible, según la coyuntura y entorno de cada país. Además, me considero un melómano, cinéfilo y apreciador del arte.
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