ECONOMÍA

La corrupción judicial en el Perú ¿Ante qué nos enfrentamos?

Fuente: Govtech

Durante las últimas semanas, se han propalado una serie de audios que develan una siniestra mafia de favores dentro del Poder Judicial. Varios funcionarios pertenecientes a entidades como el Consejo Nacional de la Magistratura (CNM) y la jurisdicción de Justicia en el Callao, al parecer sin mayores escrúpulos, fueron descubiertos como operarios de esta red de corrupción. Esto no es nada nuevo para el país. Más bien, es una muestra de una triste tendencia que se repite con el paso de los años a nivel institucional sin que haya visos de solución. Un fenómeno inicuo que se repite una y otra vez. Y, ahora, lo expone uno de los tres poderes del Estado.

Ante todo, el sistema judicial es un componente fundamental de cualquier democracia. Esto porque es justamente a través de ese sistema que es posible velar y garantizar los derechos fundamentales que corresponden a cualquier ciudadano. El acceso y la calidad de los servicios de justicia es uno de los requisitos principales para el crecimiento y desarrollo económicos de una sociedad. Si hay corrupción, se favorece a una parte, debido, probablemente, a su mayor poderío político o económico. Esto nos conduce a situaciones de ineficiencia en el funcionamiento de los mercados y, peor aún, resultados inequitativos para los miembros de la sociedad. Este factor se suma a otros más inicuos y conlleva a una sociedad más desigual desde todo punto de vista que se mire.

Ahora, una nueva crisis de corrupción se suscita dentro de uno de los escenarios donde se cernían sospechas y voces indiscretas. Así, estas conjeturas pasan a ser una realidad tangible y aplastante. Como se ha visto, las autoridades han empezado a ejecutar medidas como destituciones y anuncios de posibles reformas. Sin embargo, para realizar cualquier política pública cuyo objetivo sea erradicar la corrupción, es necesario, primero, contar con evidencia anterior. Esta última se hace difícil de conseguir habida cuenta que la corrupción no es un fenómeno simple de entender ni de medir. Más bien, se presenta en distintas formas, dada su naturaleza oscura y compleja. Como mencionan Banerjee y otros (2012), la dificultad viene tanto por el lado teórico como por el empírico. A nivel teórico, los autores mencionan que la tipificación de la corrupción no es una sola, sino que esta puede cambiar en función a diferentes marcos burocráticos, judiciales, sociales, políticos e, incluso, culturales. Por el lado empírico, el obstáculo central proviene desde la naturaleza misma de la corrupción. Esta es secreta e ilícita, por lo mismo de sus fines y objetivos. Así, su medición se hace muy complicada.

UN ELEFANTE EN LA HABITACIÓN

En conclusión, sabemos que los miembros pertenecientes a las plataformas judiciales están demasiado expuestos a realizar actos de corrupción debido a grandes intereses personales o económicos. Podemos ver, así, que este problema tiene un gran arraigo dentro de nuestro sistema institucional. La actual coyuntura nos manifiesta que los sistemas que imparten justicia no están funcionando como debería ser ya desde hace tiempo. Para extirpar estas redes de corrupción, hace falta reformas profundas a nivel estructural dentro del Poder Judicial. No obstante, esto se debió haber realizado hace mucho tiempo y con mucha planificación de por medio. Al parecer, recién acabamos de ver al elefante en la habitación.

Fuentes:

BANERJEE, Abhijit; MULLAINATHAN, Sendhil; HANNA, Rema. (2012) Corruption. National Bureau of Economic Research.

Jorge Condeña
Futuro economista convencido que el bienestar social da una mayor utilidad que el bienestar personal. Me agrada investigar y escribir sobre los temas que conciernen al desarrollo del Perú.
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