ECONOMÍA

Opinión: La corrupción, decisión de todos nosotros

Fuente: Radiografía de la Corrupción en el Perú. (2019).

Escrito por: Joaquin Pacheco

El Fondo Monetario Internacional (FMI) reveló que, tras la explosión del caso Odebrecht entre 2016 y 2017, el PBI del Perú se redujo 0.8%, principalmente, por la congelación de grandes proyectos de inversión (ej. el Gasoducto Sur). Asimismo, el BCR ha estimado que el caso ‘Lava Jato’ causó pérdidas de 1000 millones de dólares por concesiones paralizadas, reduciendo el PBI entre 0.5 y 0.6 puntos el 2017. Actualmente, el economista César Peñaranda estima que el costo por año de la corrupción será entre 2.5 y 3 puntos porcentuales del PBI en los años siguientes—entre US$5650 y US$6780 millones. La corrupción es el principal problema del país, y ya todos lo sabemos.

Desde el 2002—año que marcó el inicio del “boom económico”—,el país ha facilitado una inversión privada extranjera y nacional casi sin restricciones (principalmente orientada a la extracción y exportación de materias primas). Además de la tensa situación comercial entre Estados Unidos y China y una potencial debilidad del dólar americano—condiciones que generan incertidumbre respecto a la demanda mundial de materias primas—, la corrupción es un factor que afecta gravemente la economía nacional.

Según Christine Lagarde, directora gerente del FMI, la corrupción está asociada a niveles bajos de inversión, ingreso tributario, inversión extranjera directa, y de crecimiento. Así también, el presidente de la Sociedad Nacional de Industrias, Ricardo Márquez, afirmó que la corrupción desalienta la inversión extranjera al dañar la predictibilidad del sistema jurídico, es decir, hace que los emprendimientos sean riesgosos y menos productivos. La corrupción no solamente daña la credibilidad, reputación, y eficiencia de las instituciones públicas, sino que pone en peligro dos de los motores de la economía nacional: la inversión privada nacional y extranjera.

La corrupción también causa que estas inversiones sean, frecuentemente, poco reguladas, permitiendo irregularidades y abusos hacia el medio ambiente y la población local. Si bien la corrupción es un delito, según el código penal, el cumplimiento de las leyes anticorrupción tiende a ser débil debido a la ineficiencia de los mecanismos de sanción, investigación y control. La inefectividad de la inversión pública (principalmente a la hora de evaluar y seleccionar proyectos) y de la supervisión de los gobiernos regionales y municipales hacen de la corrupción un mal difícil de erradicar.

Se debería de fomentar la democracia y transparencia dentro de los partidos políticos y prevenir la aparición de organizaciones improvisadas tentando el poder para satisfacer sus intereses personales utilizando financiamiento de dudosa procedencia. Transparencia, democracia, descentralización, y rendición de cuentas.

La corrupción es causa y efecto de un sistema descompuesto, creación nuestra y creador nuestro. Esta se instala fácilmente en sociedades incapaces de percibir los problemas morales como tal y, en lugar de eso, los justifican. Las leyes fueron creadas para regular el comportamiento de las sociedades apuntando a un bienestar común; es necesario dejar de tomarlas por su peso judicial y empezar a juzgarlas desde una perspectiva reflexiva y moral—la imposición nunca ha dado buenos resultados. Únicamente analizando y cambiando nuestras acciones lograremos el cambio que el país y el mundo necesitan.

 

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