COYUNTURA

Ideas para mejorar la educación multigrado rural

Otras voces en educación

En Perú, la brecha entre el ámbito rural y urbano en resultados de la ECE (Evaluación Censal de Estudiantes) ha venido creciendo en los últimos años. La situación de la educación rural multigrado en Perú es crítica: los alumnos no logran niveles mínimos en comprensión lectora ni matemática.

En este sentido, vale la pena explorar casos de educación multigrado exitosos en otros países y evaluar la posibilidad de tomar los aspectos positivos de cada uno para replicarlos en Perú. Específicamente, en esta nota se exploran los casos de Colombia (Escuela Nueva) y Bangladesh (Modelo BRAC) para mejorar la educación rural multigrado.

Fuente: Minedu, 2017.

Caso de Escuela Nueva – Colombia

El modelo de Escuela Nueva fue aplicado para escuelas multigrado en zonas rurales con el objetivo de promover un aprendizaje activo, participativo, cooperativo y centrado en el estudiante. Esta adaptado a las condiciones y necesidades de la niñez más vulnerable. En “The Effectiveness of Multigrade Schools in Colombia” McEwan (1998) examina la efectividad de la metodología Escuela Nueva en Colombia para mejorar el rendimiento escolar en español y matemática. Encuentra un efecto positivo y estadísticamente significativo. Esto se le puede atribuir a que el modelo de Escuela Nueva difiere del de una escuela rural tradicional en los siguientes aspectos:

Caso primaria BRAC – Bangladesh

El modelo de escuelas primarias BRAC empezó en 1985 en respuesta a la necesidad de educación de calidad de niños en Bangladesh. Provee educación a aquellos niños que no son parte aún del sistema educativo formal, con un enfoque especial en niños en el ámbito rural en condiciones de pobreza y con escuelas principalmente unidocentes de un promedio de 33 estudiantes.  Algunas de las características del modelo son las siguientes:

Una característica en común de estos modelos son los horarios flexibles a sus alumnos, la participación de la comunidad en la educación del niño, las capacitaciones a docentes y el hecho que el docente adquiere el rol de facilitador del aprendizaje de los niños. Definitivamente, adaptando el servicio educativo en el ámbito rural a las necesidades de los los niños se pueden lograr mejores resultados de aprendizaje y menor deserción escolar. En general, hay espacio para generar innovación en la calidad de aprendizaje. Es necesario empezar a tomar en cuenta la oportunidad para probar nuevos modelos y cambios en las escuelas.


Fuentes:

Fundación Escuela Nueva. Consultado en: http://www.escuelanueva.org/

Ministerio de Educación de Colombia. Consultado en: http://www.colombiaaprende.edu.co/html/home/1592/article-94519.html

BRAC Education Programme. Consultado en: http://www.brac.net/education?view=page

Valeria Jarama
Economista de la Universidad del Pacífico. Escribe sobre temas de economía del desarrollo, educación y políticas públicas.
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