Ley de pago oportuno pyme en Chile. Y en Perú, ¿para cuándo?


El primero de Enero las pymes chilenas estaban de fiesta. Iniciaba el 2019 y el presidente Piñera promulgó la ley que obligará gradualmente a las grandes empresas, municipalidades y gobierno a pagar a las pymes proveedoras en un máximo de 30 días. La obligación inicia con 60 días y paulatinamente reduciría el termino de pago a un mes desde la recepción de guía electrónica en el mes 26 luego de promulgada.

La también llamada “ley de pronto pago” incluye además moras e intereses en casos de incumplimiento, siendo su alcance no sólo privado, sino que también toca a entes del gobierno central y municipalidades.

Y en Perú, ¿para cuándo?

Si el 97% de las empresas que existen en el país son pymes (incluidas micro, pequeñas y medianas empresas) y éstas dan empleo a casi la mitad de la población económicamente activa, es decir, unos 8 millones de peruanos, entonces los beneficios de una ley similar “se caen de maduros”.

La coyuntura es especial dado que, como países vecinos con políticas macro similares, el Perú tiende a imitar las buenas prácticas (sobre todo si vienen de la Alianza del Pacífico, el bloque más estable y democrático de la región).

Y aprovechándola, estos son 5 puntos de análisis que propongo:

Si baja la morosidad de un mercado, sube su competitividad. Es difícil pensar en una pyme que pudiendo cobrar a 30 días, prefiera que sus clientes lo hagan a 90. Entonces, si su caja tiene mayor predictibilidad (gracias a la ley) se hace más competitiva, y por tanto también lo hacen el mercado y el país. Como que uno más uno es dos.

Si las grandes empresas pagan a tiempo a sus proveedores más pequeños, mejora el ciclo del capital de trabajo, por tanto, las tasas de interés bajan. En el mediano plazo, la presión por capital estará  en la gran empresa, que al tener sólo un mes para pagar sus obligaciones saldrá al mercado financiero a buscar fondeo para evitar posibles multas, moras e intereses; lo que debería presionar las tasas de intereses hacia abajo.

Si hay previsibilidad las empresas de factoring y confirming florecerán. En Chile hay unas 300 empresas proveedoras de estos servicios, en Perú quizás unas 70. Una ley de pronto pago dinamizaría el quehacer de este tipo de actores cuyo modelo es evaluar el riesgo (de no-pago) del cliente.

Si hay claridad en los pagos, hay más inversión extranjera. Matemática simple, si la practica común en Estados Unidos o Europa es pago a 30 días y una ley de pago oportuno está en línea con ello, entonces aquellos países que la apliquen son tierra fértil para la inversión. Si a condiciones similares de mercado, un país tiene la ley y otro no, ¿a dónde iría naturalmente la inversión extranjera?

Si las pymes viven más, hay más empleo. La tercera razón de muerte de las pymes en Latinoamérica es la falta de acceso a líneas de crédito con tasas manejables para capital de trabajo (la primera es tratar de vender productos sin mercado y la segunda problemas societarios); una ley que garantice ciclos de pago-cobro adecuados es como oxígeno; crítico para seguir viviendo. Si menos pymes mueren tendremos menos desempleo.

Moisés Otero
Emprendor Digital, Co-fundador de la primera comunidad p2p para el cambio de dólares en Latam, MidPoint FX; Fundador de Embarkee y exGerente de Negocios de Comparabien. Escribe sobre sus vivencias, experiencia y el desarrollo del mundo startup y la industria fintech en Perú y la región.

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