ECONOMÍA

Elusión y evasión tributaria en Perú

Fuente: Pymex

La recaudación tributaria en Perú es pequeña en comparación a otros países de la región. Según Víctor Shiguiyama, jefe de la Sunat, el promedio de la presión tributaria en los últimos 18 años es de 14.7% del PBI. El promedio de Latinoamérica es 23% y el de la OCDE es de 34%. Un dato que también destacó Shiguiyama es que alrededor del 80% del presupuesto público es producto de la recaudación tributaria (Gestión, 2017). ¿Por qué recaudamos menos en relación a nuestro PBI que otros países? Una de las respuestas sugiere que por los altos índices de elusión y evasión tributaria.

Un primer punto a tener en cuenta es la distinción entre ambos conceptos. Para la Sunat, la evasión hace referencia a la eliminación parcial o total que hace el contribuyente sobre los impuestos que tiene que pagar. Es ilegal y denominada “defraudación tributaria” según la ley penal tributaria. Por otro lado, la elusión tributaria está relacionada con acciones permitidas por la ley que hace el contribuyente para evitar el pago de impuestos. Los que eluden impuestos aprovechan vacíos en las leyes o estrategias no sancionables.

Ambas conductas disminuyen los potenciales ingresos tributarios del gobierno y, como hemos comentando en artículos previos, para asegurar la sostenibilidad del gasto es importante optimizar la recaudación de impuestos.

Otro punto es que estos problemas se presentan de manera distinta según industria e impuesto. Por ejemplo, la evasión tributaria del IGV es de alrededor del 36% de la recaudación potencial (alrededor de S/ 22,000 millones) y la evasión del Impuesto a la renta (IR) es de alrededor del 57.3% de la recaudación potencial (alrededor de S/ 35,000 millones) (Gestión, 2017).

¿Qué explica la evasión y elusión tributaria?

Algunos de los factores que afectan la evasión tributaria son que los consumidores no exigen comprobantes de pago al realizar transacciones y dificultades para el cobro. Mientras que la elusión se puede explicar por ciertas exoneraciones establecidas por ley o por vacíos legales.

Frente a esta situación la Sunat ha lanzado diversas campañas para fomentar una cultura tributaria que mejore la exigencia del comprobante de pago. Así como facilitar la cobranza y mejorar el control a través de medios electrónicos.

Por el lado de la evasión, una acción fue emprendida esta semana cuando el Ministerio de Economía y Finanzas suscribió una convención internacional para reducir la elusión tributaria en empresas multinacionales. Para ello, se identificarán esquemas planificados utilizados para no pagar impuestos y así lograr que las firmas paguen los impuestos correspondientes en nuestro país (RPP, 2018).

Queda bastante por hacer en el ámbito de la recaudación tributaria. Esperemos que tanto el gobierno como los contribuyentes cooperen con la finalidad de cerrar brechas y mejorar los servicios públicos.

Fuentes:

Gestión. (2017 de Setiembre de 2017). Sunat: ¿Cuánto suma la evasión tributaria en el Perú? Diario Gestión.

RPP. (27 de Junio de 2018). Perú firma convención para combatir elusión tributaria de empresas multinacionales. RPP.

Viale, C. (2013). Evasión y elusión tributaria en el Perú. Lima: Desco.

Alfredo Dancuart
Estudiante de economía de la Universidad del Pacífico. Me interesa la gestión pública y la investigación, y creo que siempre es bueno integrar herramientas de otras disciplinas para un mejor análisis económico. Me gustan las humanidades, las ciencias sociales y la música (si es Soda Stereo, mejor).
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