ECONOMÍA

¿Cómo declaro mis impuestos?

Fuente: RPP

Desde el 22 de Marzo hasta el 7 de Abril del presente más de 800 mil contribuyentes (inscritos en los registros de la SUNAT) tendrán que realizar su Declaración Jurada Anual del Impuesto a la Renta correspondiente al ejercicio 2016. Si eres uno de ellos, esta pequeña guía informativa te servirá para clarificar cualquier duda que tengas sobre este proceso y en el mejor de los casos evitar las elevadas multas de S/ 2,025 si estás inscrito como persona natural y S/ 4,050, en el caso tengas una empresa (persona jurídica).

¿Qué es el impuesto a la renta?

El impuesto a la renta es un tributo que se recauda anualmente por el Estado el cual se aplica a las rentas que se deriven del trabajo individual o el aprovechamiento de capital  (alquileres, bonos o títulos). Los contribuyentes gravados por este tributo están divididos en regímenes tributarios y cada uno de ellos puede emitir sus declaraciones de impuestos por diferentes tipos de renta (primera, segunda, tercera, cuarta y quinta categoría). Para controlar a sus contribuyentes, la SUNAT lo hace a través del Régimen General, que consiste en una declaración y pago mensual del Impuesto a la Renta, IGV y el Nuevo Régimen Único Simplificado (RUS). Afortunadamente, los pagos se pueden realizar en cualquiera de las agencias bancarias autorizadas por la SUNAT.

Por otro lado, si recaudaste rentas por el alquiler de algún tipo de inmueble su tipo de renta será de primera categoría. Si fue bajo un sistema de bonos o títulos será de segunda categoría y si percibió ingresos por trabajos como persona natural será de cuarta categoría. Finalmente si fue como empleado de una empresa serán de quinta categoría.

Aquí les dejamos un vídeo para que puedan calcular su Impuesto a la Renta

¿Cuál es el proceso para declarar el Impuesto a la Renta?

Existe un cronograma establecido por la SUNAT, el cual está publicado en la siguiente dirección web (ver aquí). La fecha límite para presentar la declaración jurada del impuesto a la renta es el 07 de abril. Hoy, 03 del mismo mes, vence el plazo para quienes cuyo RUC acabe en el dígito 6.

No obstante, no todos los trabajadores tienen que declarar impuestos. Según la SUNAT son tres casos típicos: si eres un contribuyente de cuarta categoría y ganas menos de S/34.560 en el año, si no estás afiliado al Nuevo RUS o los que integran el Régimen Especial de Impuesto a la Renta.

Sin embargo la SUNAT ha postergado los pagos de obligaciones tributarias para quienes presenten domicilio fiscal en zonas de emergencia, tales como los departamentos de Tumbes, Piura, Lambayeque, Áncash, Cajamarca y La Libertad, así como algunas provincias y distritos de Ica, Lima, Huancavelica y Arequipa; con prórrogas que fluctúan entre los 45 y 60 días dependiendo de la localidad en la que se encuentran.

 

 


SUNAT. (Febrero de 2017). sunat.gob.pe. Obtenido de http://www.sunat.gob.pe/estadisticasestudios/nota_tributaria/cdro_49.xls

 

Jorge Aguayo Sánchez
Economista en potencia de la Universidad del Pacífico. Me apasiona leer sobre política y me encanta practicar todo tipo de deporte. Soy miembro de Peruvian Universities, un equipo de debate de Modelo de Naciones Unidas con el que he competido en Roma, Montreal y Ciudad de Panamá.
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