ECONOMÍA

China vs. USA: La disputa por el dominio económico en América Latina

Fuente: South China Morning Post

En el 2013, Xi Jinping ascendió a la presidencia de la República Popular China. Este hecho es considerado como el punto de inflexión del rumbo económico de la economía global de esta década. En el lapso de estos años, ha logrado establecer a China como la segunda potencia del mundo. Su estrategia se basa principalmente en establecer lazos comerciales y de inversión a largo plazo con una región emergente como lo es América Latina. Esto responde al objetivo de convertir al país asiático en superpotencia global y de la promoción de un orden internacional mucho más armónico. Debido al éxito de las políticas del mandatario chino ha sido catalogado como “El hombre más poderoso del mundo” por la revista inglesa The Economist.

Un escenario distinto es el que experimenta Estados Unidos, cuya hegemonía e influencia en la región latinoamericana ha sido mermada por la acelerada incursión china. El ascenso de Donald Trump ha contribuido a que se acentúe esta pérdida de poder. Su discurso nacionalista y proteccionista en el ámbito comercial cuestiona alianzas y rompe acuerdos, los cuales, han generado la imagen de un líder únicamente interesado en los asuntos nacionales. El republicano retiró a los Estados Unidos del Tratado comercial con el Pacífico (TPP) como una de las primeras acciones de su gobierno. De esta manera, reafirmó su agenda anti-globalización bajo el particular lema de “América primero”.

La inacción de la administración americana fundamentada en el retroceso de pactos comerciales y falta de nuevas estrategias con sus vecinos del sur, contribuye directamente a la expansión de la influencia china en la región. Desde la Casa Blanca, la preocupación por la pérdida de poder viene creciendo progresivamente, de modo que, en el mes pasado potencias como Rusia y China fueran consideradas como amenazas para la estabilidad, seguridad y prosperidad. Un panorama distinto se experimenta dentro del país oriental, cuyas expectativas de inversión en la región van en aumento. Asimismo, no descartan en un futuro poder expandir su influencia en otros rubros, como el ámbito político o educacional.

El auge de la influencia china en Latinoamérica es observado como un rotundo fracaso de política estadounidense. Estados Unidos busca satisfacer la demanda popular, reestructurando el problema migratorio y el proteccionismo de la clase obrera. En contraste, China encontró en América Latina una fuente de progreso a largo plazo ante las inconmensurables reservas en materias primas y recursos energéticos. Así, el comercio entre estos dos bloques ha permitido establecer lazos comerciales muy fructíferos para ambas partes.

Hugo Salazar
Estudiante de Economía en la Universidad del Pacífico. Nadador y ciclista empedernido. Con predilección por analizar el entorno macroeconómico mundial y su impacto en el bienestar de países en desarrollo. La educación nos hará libres.
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