ECONOMÍA

Blockchain: Cambiaría el mundo como lo hizo el Internet a la media

Fuente: Johnkoetsier

Antes que todo, es importante tener en cuenta que el Blockchain es la tecnología detrás de las criptomonedas, como el Bitcoin. No obstante, sus usos y beneficios se extienden mucho más allá, dentro de una amplia gama de sectores. “Las criptomonedas son la punta del iceberg de la tecnología Blockchain”. Pero, ¿qué la hace tan especial? ¿Será tan revolucionaria como el Internet?

Recapitulando sobre la historia del Internet, en 1997 muchos especulaban de lo que esta podría llegar a ser, tanto su impacto como alcance. No obstante, con el tiempo se convirtió en uno de los pilares de nuestras vidas. Y no solo tuvo un impacto social y de la forma en que nos comunicamos y compramos bienes y servicios, sino también modificó la estructura política y económica del siglo XXI. Un claro ejemplo fue la Primavera Árabe, al igual que las elecciones presidenciales de Estados Unidos.

Tal como lo hizo el Internet, el Blockchain podría ser el nuevo eje de cambio de nuestras vidas. Cabe señalar que en las primeras etapas de implementación de toda tecnología existe una gran competencia entre desarrolladores, por lo que es importante especificar sobre cuál Blockchain uno se refiere. Asimismo, al igual que el Internet, la tecnología del Blockchain será más potente cuando todos utilicen la misma red. Así, es de esperarse que un futuro se hable de “LA Blockchain”, y no, de un grupo de distintas versiones.

Si bien la primera relación que le damos al Blockchain es con el Bitcoin, su gama de aplicación se extiende actualmente más allá de temas financieros y legales, sino también, entre otros, en el retail (Walmart y Pfizer), sistema de salud (Estonia y Dubai) y hasta hotelería (Lockchain). Por su parte, en el futuro se espera que el Blockchain reemplace los sistemas de registro y verificación de distintas entidades del sector educación (colegios y universidades); durante las elecciones políticas (sistema de votación); alquileres (hoteles, carros, etc) y bienes raíces; entretenimiento (música y videos); trading (acciones, bonos, etc); sistema de seguros y salud; sistema de Supply Chain; gestión energética (electricidad); armas (registro y tracking), ONGs (ver BitGive Foundation), y muchos más.

Blockchain en el mundo actual

Retail y finanzas

El uso del Blockchain en distintas áreas, incluyendo finanzas y retail, se ha expandido rápidamente. Y entre las compañías que más invierten en la tecnología de Blockchain se encuentran Goldman Sachs (desde 2012) y Google (mediante Alphabet Inc.).

Fuente: CB Insights y Yahoo Finance. Elaboración propia

Asimismo, Walmart y Pfizer han completado pilotos de Blockchain para la seguridad de alimentos y el registro y distribución de medicinas, respectivamente.

Por su parte, aproximadamente 15 bancos europeos, desde Barclays Bank Plc hasta Banco Santander SA, han comenzado a desarrollar la tecnología del Blockchain para las áreas de trading, transacciones y commodities. Incluso BBVA es parte de los inversionistas de empresas de Blockchain tales como R3, Enterprise Alliance, Hyperledger y Lyra.

Según Accenture, importante consultora digital, un banco podría ahorrar incluso USD 8,000 MM sobre una base de costos de USD 30,000 MM, lo que representaría una reducción del 27% de su estructura de costos.

Fuente: Bloomberg, Accenture

 

Sistema de Salud – Estonia y Dubai

En el 2007 el Sistema del Gobierno de Estonia sufrió un fuerte ciberataque. A partir de lo anterior, se tomó la decisión de pasar a un sistema basado en Blockchain. Esto se debe a que el Blockchain es un software que involucra un sistema de registros público y encriptado, que permite que la información no pueda ser borrada o falsificada.

De esta manera, la autoridad de salud de Estonia comenzó a registrar el historial médico de sus ciudadanos en Blockchain. Asimismo, el Gobierno de Dubai se encuentra adoptando la tecnología Blockchain dentro de su sistema de salud. Cabe señalar que se espera registrar la totalidad de los documentos gubernamentales para el 2020.

Hotelería

Por su parte, entre los principales emprendimientos basados en Blockchain en el sector hotelero se encuentra Lockchain. Este es un mercado de reserva de hoteles y rentas vacacionales, que ofrece 0% de comisiones. Lo anterior permitiría reducir las tarifas entre 10% a 25% aproximadamente. En otras palabras, busca facilitar el alquiler de lugares a nivel mundial, muy parecido a AirBnB. La preventa de sus activos empezó el 29 de Setiembre y se estima que el proyecto se lance oficialmente a finales del primer trimestre del 2018.

 

Fiorella Torres
Graduada de Economía de la Universidad del Pacífico y fanática de la volatilidad del mercado (puedo hablarte por horas del tipo de cambio). Actualmente candidata al Programa CFA nivel 3. Me gusta tocar la batería, ver los atardeceres y disfrutar de buenas conversas.
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