ECONOMÍA

Artículo: Decisiones inconscientes, cambios importantes

Fuente: Internet

Durante los últimos años, la denominada Economía del Comportamiento ha tomado protagonismo tanto para el desarrollo y análisis de teorías conductuales con enfoque económico, como para su aplicación en los negocios y las políticas públicas. La evidencia sugiere que la aplicación de las prácticas desarrolladas por la teoría del ‘nudging’ ha pasado a tener un rol clave en la formulación de políticas gubernamentales – y nuevas estrategias de mercados. Su fundador, Richard Thaler, Nobel en Economía en el año 2017 por su contribución al campo de la Economía del Comportamiento, acertaba al afirmar que la tenencia de información para los usuarios es clave y puede modificar su comportamiento para mejor.

La teoría

 Contrario a la economía tradicional, donde se asume que los agentes económicos se guían por decisiones basadas en la lógica y la racionalidad, las teorías desarrolladas sobre la economía del comportamiento aceptan la existencia de conductas irracionales y pretenden explicar el porqué de estas. Este campo estudia la interacción de aspectos económicos y racionales con aspectos psicológicos y emocionales del ser humano que influyen en sus decisiones.

Por ejemplo, ¿usted escogería subir por las escaleras en vez del ascensor si hubiera información sobre la cantidad de calorías que quema por cada peldaño? ¿Pagaría a tiempo sus arbitrios si fuera notificado de que todos sus vecinos ya cumplieron con el pago? ¿Consumiría alimentos más saludables si estos fueran frecuentemente expuestos en los módulos de ‘cajas rápidas’ de los supermercados?

Aun teniendo información suficiente, las respuestas a estas preguntas se pueden ver influenciadas por nuestra personalidad, emociones y por el contexto en el que nos desenvolvemos más que por un análisis de los riesgos y beneficios que nos traería cada decisión. Los cambios conductuales que pueden generar distintos estímulos, también llamados ‘nudges’ o empujones, han facilitado la aplicación de la Economía del Comportamiento en el ámbito empresarial para incrementar la rentabilidad; y gubernamental, para incrementar el beneficio social.

La práctica

En el ámbito de las políticas públicas, existen diversas aplicaciones del uso de ‘nudges’ por parte de los gobiernos como una alternativa a la creación de impuestos, regulación o prohibiciones. Un mecanismo más efectivo y menos costoso para dar solución a problemas de salud, nutrición, ambiente, tributación, entre otros.

En América Latina, la aplicación de ‘nudges’ en Guatemala incrementó el cumplimiento del pago de impuestos a través de la comunicación mediante cartas y mensajes de texto a los contribuyentes. El uso de un mecanismo similar en Argentina, generó un incremento de 9% en el cumplimiento del pago (Castro y Scartascini, 2013); mientras que en Colombia, la recaudación aumentó en 250% el monto que se hubiera obtenido sin intervención (Ortega y Scartascini, 2015). En Costa Rica, una municipalidad local informó a sus residentes sobre el consumo del agua de su hogar en comparación al promedio de su vecindario y lograron un ahorro en el consumo de agua entre 3.5% y 5.6% (Datta, Miranda y Zoratto, 2015).En Perú, el primer laboratorio de innovación para la política educativa en la región, MineduLab, del Ministerio de Educación, desarrolla estudios e iniciativas de bajo costo que incorporan la perspectiva de la Economía del Comportamiento con el objetivo de generar evidencia sobre políticas educativas efectivas.

Es claro que la experiencia de la aplicación de ‘nudges’ en las políticas públicas no resolverá los problemas más complejos del mundo pero sí contribuirá a soluciones más costo-efectivas que se pueden aplicar en la vida diaria.

Daniela Uribe
Economista, convencida de que la educación es la clave del desarrollo. Viajera y fan de los brunch de fin de semana. Trabajo en políticas públicas y en dar valor a cada sol invertido.
22 Comments

Deja tu comentario

Loading Facebook Comments ...

22 Comments

  1. retro jordans

    Marzo 13, 2019 at 5:28 pm

    I precisely desired to say thanks once more. I am not sure the things I could possibly have gone through without the type of strategies discussed by you regarding my topic. It has been an absolute alarming situation for me personally, but noticing the expert avenue you dealt with it made me to weep for happiness. I’m happier for the assistance and then trust you are aware of a powerful job you were doing educating some other people with the aid of your website. More than likely you’ve never met any of us.

  2. hermes belt

    Marzo 14, 2019 at 11:00 pm

    I am also commenting to make you know what a excellent experience my friend’s child developed checking your webblog. She came to understand several details, with the inclusion of how it is like to have an awesome giving spirit to make folks effortlessly know just exactly specified complicated matters. You undoubtedly did more than her expected results. I appreciate you for imparting those great, trustworthy, revealing and in addition unique thoughts on your topic to Evelyn.

  3. ysl handbags

    Marzo 17, 2019 at 12:26 pm

    My spouse and i felt absolutely contented that Raymond managed to deal with his survey using the precious recommendations he acquired using your blog. It is now and again perplexing to simply possibly be handing out points that most people might have been selling. And we all realize we now have the blog owner to be grateful to for that. All the illustrations you’ve made, the simple web site menu, the relationships you make it possible to promote – it’s all fabulous, and it’s really assisting our son and the family understand that content is enjoyable, and that is extremely important. Thanks for all the pieces!

  4. yeezy boost 350

    Marzo 19, 2019 at 10:17 pm

    My husband and i have been quite cheerful when Edward managed to do his investigations with the precious recommendations he obtained from your very own blog. It’s not at all simplistic to simply possibly be giving freely ideas that most people could have been selling. And we figure out we have got the website owner to be grateful to because of that. The type of explanations you’ve made, the easy website menu, the relationships your site make it easier to promote – it’s got everything incredible, and it’s really assisting our son in addition to our family recognize that this issue is brilliant, which is certainly truly important. Many thanks for the whole thing!

  5. jordan 4

    Marzo 21, 2019 at 5:33 am

    Needed to send you this little bit of note to thank you over again on your beautiful tricks you’ve shared on this website. It was certainly tremendously open-handed of people like you to convey freely precisely what a few individuals could have marketed as an electronic book to earn some money for themselves, notably considering that you could have tried it if you considered necessary. These tactics also worked as the great way to comprehend other individuals have the identical zeal similar to my very own to realize very much more with reference to this issue. I think there are millions of more pleasant opportunities in the future for people who read through your website.

  6. ultra boost 3.0

    Marzo 23, 2019 at 5:51 pm

    Thanks for your entire work on this web site. Kate really likes going through investigation and it’s obvious why. We know all regarding the lively form you give simple secrets on your web site and therefore inspire contribution from people on the issue plus our own simple princess is without a doubt becoming educated a lot. Take advantage of the remaining portion of the new year. You’re conducting a wonderful job.

  7. air jordans

    Marzo 23, 2019 at 10:11 pm

    I simply wanted to post a quick word so as to say thanks to you for the splendid recommendations you are showing at this site. My incredibly long internet research has now been compensated with excellent details to exchange with my classmates and friends. I ‘d state that that we readers actually are really blessed to live in a remarkable site with many lovely professionals with helpful techniques. I feel really happy to have seen your entire web pages and look forward to so many more enjoyable times reading here. Thank you once more for all the details.

  8. yeezys

    Marzo 25, 2019 at 5:59 am

    Thanks for your own effort on this web site. My niece takes pleasure in going through investigations and it’s obvious why. Most people notice all of the compelling tactic you deliver rewarding tips via your website and cause contribution from the others on that issue so our daughter is really being taught a great deal. Take pleasure in the remaining portion of the year. You have been performing a pretty cool job.

  9. michael kors handbags

    Marzo 26, 2019 at 2:44 pm

    A lot of thanks for all of the effort on this web site. My niece loves conducting investigation and it is obvious why. My spouse and i know all relating to the powerful ways you present practical solutions through this web blog and even inspire response from visitors on that subject so our princess has always been understanding a lot. Have fun with the rest of the year. You’re the one conducting a brilliant job.

  10. http://nanoo.net

    Abril 18, 2019 at 9:07 am

    A financial advisor is your planning accomplice.

  11. tinyurl.com

    Abril 25, 2019 at 1:49 pm

    Hi there! This article could not be written much better! Looking through
    this article reminds me of my previous roommate! He continually kept preaching
    about this. I most certainly will forward this information to him.
    Pretty sure he’s going to have a great read. Thank you for sharing!

  12. Fernanda Tórtima

    Abril 27, 2019 at 4:32 am

    Hi there all, here every one is sharing such knowledge, thus it’s good
    to read this web site, and I used to go to see this blog every day.

  13. tinyurl.com

    Abril 28, 2019 at 2:02 am

    It is perfect time to make a few plans for the longer
    term and it is time to be happy. I have learn this publish and if I may I wish to counsel you some fascinating issues or tips.

    Maybe you can write next articles relating to this article.

    I desire to learn even more issues about it!

  14. tinyurl.com

    Abril 28, 2019 at 10:47 am

    It’s great that you are getting ideas from this paragraph as well as from our discussion made at this time.

  15. sewa mobil

    Mayo 5, 2019 at 2:15 pm

    I got what you intend, appreciate it for posting .Woh I am pleased to find this website through google. “Money is the most egalitarian force in society. It confers power on whoever holds it.” by Roger Starr.

  16. Janis

    Mayo 6, 2019 at 3:58 am

    Today, while I was at work, my cousin stole my iphone and tested to see if it can survive a 25 foot
    drop, just so she can be a youtube sensation. My apple ipad
    is now destroyed and she has 83 views. I know this is completely
    off topic but I had to share it with someone!

  17. http://tinyurl.com/

    Mayo 14, 2019 at 6:02 pm

    I’m gone to convey my little brother, that he should
    also pay a quick visit this weblog on regular basis to get updated from most up-to-date news.

  18. tinyurl.com

    Mayo 14, 2019 at 11:00 pm

    This information is priceless. When can I find out more?

  19. Tommie

    Mayo 16, 2019 at 6:43 am

    Everyone loves what you guys tend to be up too.
    This sort of clever work and coverage! Keep up the
    great works guys I’ve included you guys to blogroll.

  20. tinyurl.com

    Mayo 16, 2019 at 4:05 pm

    Hello! Do you know if they make any plugins to assist with
    Search Engine Optimization? I’m trying to get my blog to rank for some targeted keywords but I’m not seeing very good success.
    If you know of any please share. Kudos!

  21. Rufus

    Mayo 18, 2019 at 10:13 am

    Someone essentially assist to make critically posts I would state.

    That is the very first time I frequented your website page and to this point?
    I amazed with the research you made to make this particular post extraordinary.
    Fantastic process!

  22. tinyurl.com

    Mayo 19, 2019 at 4:26 am

    I’m really impressed with your writing skills and also with the layout on your blog.
    Is this a paid theme or did you customize it yourself?
    Either way keep up the nice quality writing, it is
    rare to see a nice blog like this one today.

Leave a Reply

Su dirección de correo no se hará público. Los campos requeridos están marcados *

To Top