Artículo: Lima, ¿Hacia dónde se dirige?

Fuente: Banco Mundial

Lima, la capital peruana, alberga a más de 9 millones de peruanos. El estatus de megaciudad le será otorgado con seguridad en un futuro próximo. Como tal, se avecinan múltiples retos y desafíos tanto a los habitantes como a las futuras gestiones ediles y gubernamentales. Estas últimas, durante la era republicana, no se encargaron de iniciar una planificación urbanística seria y de largo plazo para nuestra capital. La gobernanza municipal, tal como se ha llevado a cabo a lo largo de los años, ha conllevado a que gran parte de las zonas habitables de la ciudad esté en un estado de tugurización alarmante. Por ello, no es casualidad los interminables problemas a los cuales nos enfrentamos los ciudadanos en el día a día al vivir y transitar por Lima. A todo esto, vale preguntarnos cuál es el estado coyuntural de nuestra ciudad.

Por un lado, remitiéndonos a algunas estadísticas, en 2013, el Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo (BID) llevó a cabo una encuesta acerca de los niveles de calidad de vida, servicios públicos e infraestructura pública. Esta fue realizada en cinco ciudades de Latinoamérica consideradas megaciudades o próximas a serlo. Así, se comprobó que, en Lima, las necesidades de la población se concentraban principalmente en los siguientes temas: seguridad, transparencia, transporte, participación y salud. Por ejemplo, en el tema de transporte, el tiempo de viaje promedio para el habitante limeño era de, aproximadamente, una hora con 20 minutos. En relación a la cantidad de habitantes que viajaban entre una hora y media a más, el 38% de la población cabía dentro de este rubro. No obstante, en lo referente a servicios de saneamiento, solo el 9% de los limeños opinaron que la calidad del servicio de agua es deficiente. Respecto al precio de esta, el 54% de la población opinó que no es caro. En el caso de ahorro del líquido elemento, el 23% consideró que debe reducir el consumo de agua en su vivienda.

Por otro lado, surge la pregunta genuina de cuánto es que los ciudadanos se benefician realmente al residir en una gran ciudad, como es el caso de Lima. Temas como la continua migración interna deberían abordarse en los planes de sostenibilidad urbana, así como las demandas y necesidades que enfrentará la población migrante. Garantizar servicios básicos, agua potable y saneamiento, así como brindar espacios de esparcimiento son cuestiones inmediatas a resolver.

En conclusión, la Ciudad de los Reyes está en una encrucijada en la cual los temas de gobernanza, infraestructura y calidad de vida, entre otros, se ciernen como pilares centrales a resolver para dar soporte a la estructura urbana limeña. ¿Qué fuentes de recursos debe buscar Lima en un futuro?, ¿qué medidas de gobernanza metropolitana deben implementarse a largo plazo?, ¿qué obras de infraestructura deben realizarse para que la circulación en Lima sea sostenible o, en el peor de los casos, aún posible? Son preguntas que no pueden eludirse y necesitan ser respondidas por nuestras autoridades y planificadores urbanos.

Jorge Condeña
Futuro economista convencido que el bienestar social da una mayor utilidad que el bienestar personal. Me agrada investigar y escribir sobre los temas que conciernen al desarrollo del Perú.

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