ECONOMÍA

Artículo: Amartya Sen, el desarrollo humano es ser libre

Fuente: Internet

Amartya Sen es reconocido por sus grandes aportes a la Teoría Económica del Desarrollo Humano. Siendo ganador del Premio del Banco de Suecia en Ciencias Económicas en 1998. La base de su pensamiento la encontramos en su obra “Desarrollo y Libertad”. En esta se presenta a la libertad personal como medio principal para lograr el desarrollo humano y, a la vez, como objetivo final de este último.

La tesis consiste en que el desarrollo humano es directamente proporcional a las libertades que tiene una persona. Así, cuando un país posee un índice de desarrollo deficiente o en retroceso, concluimos que existe falta de libertades personales. Y es ahí donde las políticas públicas deben enfocarse en la eliminación de barreras que impiden el ejercicio de estas.

¿A qué nos referimos con libertades personales?

Principalmente se incluyen a: 1) libertades políticas, 2) servicios económicos, 3) oportunidades sociales, 4) garantías de transparencia y 5) seguridad protectora. Todo ello evaluado dentro de las diversas instituciones sociales de un país.

En relación a lo antes mencionado, vale decir que dichas libertades personales no son opuestas ni independientes. Por el contrario, existe un vínculo estrecho de complementariedad entre ellas, causando incluso que algunas generen o refuercen a otras.

¿Cuáles son algunas fuentes de opresión de las libertades personales?

Se identifican dos pilares básicos: la tiranía y la pobreza. Las cuales se pueden plasmar en: escases de oportunidades económicas, la intolerancia o el abuso del Estado, el mal funcionamiento de los servicios públicos, la hambruna, la desnutrición, falta de asistencia sanitaria, sistemas de saneamiento, agua potable, seguridad económica, seguridad social, desempleo, la desigualdad entre varones y mujeres, la falta de educación básica, etc.

¿Cómo se expanden las libertades personales?

  • Por medio de políticas públicas: El mismo que requiere de un rol activo de las autoridades, previo estudio de la situación real de una sociedad. Ello con el fin de velar por el ejercicio idóneo de los derechos fundamentales de cada persona.
  • Mediante el uso eficaz de las capacidades de participaciones: Aquí el protagonista es el ciudadano quien puede y debe ejercer sus derechos sociales con el fin de verse involucrado en la toma de decisiones públicas. Teniendo como efecto directo conseguir aquello que considere valioso.

Podemos concluir que medir el desarrollo por medio de las libertades no es un enfoque estrictamente económico. Sin embargo, brinda un análisis pormenorizado y global del progreso humano, tal como lo resalta Amartya Sen en una entrevista.  Enfoque que es más amplio que solo medir el crecimiento económico de un país.

Isabel Cajavilca
Estudiante de Derecho en la PUCP. Le fascina la estrecha relación entre la Economía y el Derecho como medio para entender y mejorar las política públicas.
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