ECONOMÍA

Análisis: Minería, riqueza que empobrece

Rumbo Minero

En el Perú, las regiones con mayor potencial minero han fallado en su intento por asegurar adecuadas condiciones de desarrollo económico y social. Cajamarca, por ejemplo, reportó ser el departamento con mayor incidencia de pobreza monetaria en el 2017, pese a que el 21% de sus ingresos se obtuvieron principalmente de la extracción de minerales (INEI, 2019). Sin embargo, la realidad más peligrosa es la que se esconde detrás de aquella minería que no somos capaces de fiscalizar, y cuyas exportaciones superan ya la del narcotráfico: la minería ilegal. Y es que no solo dejamos de percibir aportes tributarios, sino que enfrentamos una peligrosa e irreversible destrucción que nos empobrece entre tanta riqueza.

La minería como oportunidad y amenaza

En el 2017, Perú se posicionó como primer productor de oro en Latinoamérica y sexto a nivel mundial, con alrededor del 5% de las reservas mundiales (Osinergmin, 2017). El aumento del precio del oro fue una buena noticia para los inversionistas mineros, pero también para los ilegales e informales. Fue justamente el auge de los metales y la presencia de yacimientos fácilmente explotables lo que incrementó la actividad extractiva ilegal e informal en todas las regiones del país. Hoy, departamentos como Madre de Dios registran los menores aportes tributarios, aunque el 45% de sus ingresos provienen de la producción de oro (SUNAT, 2018).  Esto da cuenta, una vez más, de la facilidad con la que nos entrampamos en una pobreza incontrolable.

Minería ilegal e informal

La minería ilegal es definida como aquella que extrae minerales en zonas no permitidas o usa maquinaria y métodos prohibidos. La minería informal, en cambio, es legalmente viable, pero sus operadores aún no completan los requisitos exigidos por el Estado. Los ingresos generados por ambas —estimados en alrededor de US$1,000 millones anuales— no contribuyen con la recaudación de impuestos, regalías ni canon minero, a costa de una irresponsable extracción que está acabando con nuestros recursos naturales.

Lucha a ciegas

Son conocidos los efectos de la minería ilegal:  destrucción medioambiental y profundos daños sociales, asociados al lavado de activos, narcotráfico, contrabando y trata de personas (Torres, 2015). Sin embargo, se habla poco de las razones por las que la lucha contra la ilegalidad e informalidad ha tenido poco éxito.

Aunque existan numerosas mafias relacionadas con la minería ilegal, se debe considerar que la ausencia de alternativas de desarrollo económico convierte a la minería en una actividad atractiva y, en muchos casos, de subsistencia (MINEM, 2010). Es decir, la falta de oportunidades económicas locales alienta a más de 150 mil trabajadores a participar de estas actividades. Así, para departamentos como Madre de Dios, la erradicación de la minería ilegal significaría la reducción de cerca del 50% de sus fuentes de ingresos. Ciertamente, garantizar el éxito de las políticas de formalización requiere implementar estrategias que impulsen el desarrollo de otros sectores económicos en las regiones.

Por su parte, las autoridades de los tres niveles de gobierno necesitan ser más efectivas combatiendo la minería ilegal en toda su cadena de valor. Se estima, por ejemplo, que a causa del contrabando se importaron más de 190 toneladas de mercurio en el 2016. El mercurio es el principal contaminante del agua y recursos de la Amazonía. Sin embargo, para el ex presidente Pedro Pablo Kuczynski no era preocupante «si había un poquito de contrabando saliendo por Puno». Resulta alarmante, además, el retraso que originan la corrupción y débil institucionalidad en los gobiernos regionales. En Madre de Dios, particularmente, el uso de dragas ha sido materia de negociación para algunos funcionarios, pese a que la ley lo prohíbe por su alto y perjudicial efecto en los ríos. Sin duda, el ejecutivo debe fortalecer su compromiso multisectorial y los gobiernos regionales su rol fiscalizador para que operaciones como la de La Pampa nos devuelvan la esperanza.

Por último, necesitamos sincerar que luchamos a ciegas. La normativa actual sigue sin entender los matices de tipo geográfico, social y económico que envuelven a la informalidad. Hoy, muchos mineros quieren formalizarse, pero no son titulares de ninguna concesión ni pueden acceder a un contrato con su dueño. Mientras tanto, la ley incentiva y protege a concesionarios con poco interés en invertir; no es sorprendente, entonces, que el 97% de concesiones otorgadas estén inutilizadas. Se necesita repensar, optimizar y simplificar las condiciones para la pequeña, mediana y gran minería, para ver avances en la formalización.

Desafíos

Queda claro que, al igual que otros países de Latinoamérica, el Perú tiene el reto de rescatar las zonas degradadas y tomar medidas efectivas contra la minería ilegal e informal. El Estado tiene la tarea de asegurar un uso eficaz y eficiente de la recaudación para promover el desarrollo regional. Merecemos ver pronto los beneficios de una riqueza que hoy nos empobrece.

Alejandra Guardia Muguruza
Economista de la Universidad del Pacífico y consultora de APOYO Consultoría. Gran interés por la investigación, políticas públicas y proyectos de inversión. Apasionada por la argumentación y el voluntariado. Sueña con un Perú clasificado al mundial del bienestar y desarrollo. Disfruta viajar por el mundo, pero, en especial, admirar cada rincón peruano.
40 Comments

Deja tu comentario

Loading Facebook Comments ...

40 Comments

  1. 457F3C47-96BA-479F-926C-9F292B9DB1DA

    Junio 18, 2019 at 5:57 am

    I in addition to my pals were found to be taking note of the best procedures from the blog and then came up with an awful suspicion I never expressed respect to the blog owner for those strategies. Most of the women appeared to be absolutely excited to learn all of them and have seriously been having fun with these things. We appreciate you turning out to be simply considerate and for finding varieties of good ideas most people are really needing to be aware of. My sincere regret for not expressing appreciation to sooner.

  2. vapormax

    Julio 2, 2019 at 3:09 pm

    I wish to show my thanks to this writer for bailing me out of this type of circumstance. Right after scouting through the world wide web and meeting ways that were not beneficial, I thought my life was done. Being alive without the presence of approaches to the issues you have sorted out all through your main guideline is a serious case, and ones which may have in a wrong way damaged my entire career if I hadn’t discovered your blog. That expertise and kindness in taking care of everything was priceless. I am not sure what I would’ve done if I hadn’t discovered such a step like this. I can also at this moment look forward to my future. Thanks for your time very much for the impressive and results-oriented help. I will not think twice to recommend your web site to anybody who ought to have direction on this subject matter.

  3. cheap nfl jerseys

    Julio 3, 2019 at 1:28 am

    I wanted to send a word in order to thank you for these precious ways you are giving out on this site. My incredibly long internet research has at the end been recognized with wonderful suggestions to go over with my guests. I ‘d state that that many of us website visitors are very much lucky to be in a great site with very many marvellous professionals with very beneficial pointers. I feel very much lucky to have seen your entire webpages and look forward to some more pleasurable moments reading here. Thanks a lot once more for everything.

  4. yeezy boost 350

    Julio 4, 2019 at 11:43 am

    This really answered my problem, thank you!

  5. golden goose sale

    Julio 6, 2019 at 1:00 am

    I really wanted to jot down a brief note to express gratitude to you for some of the nice secrets you are giving on this website. My incredibly long internet investigation has finally been paid with good quality insight to share with my close friends. I would believe that many of us website visitors actually are unquestionably fortunate to exist in a notable website with so many perfect people with beneficial advice. I feel extremely blessed to have seen your entire webpage and look forward to so many more brilliant moments reading here. Thanks a lot again for all the details.

  6. jordans

    Julio 6, 2019 at 3:38 pm

    I want to convey my appreciation for your kind-heartedness for all those that actually need help with in this area of interest. Your very own dedication to passing the solution up and down ended up being particularly advantageous and has in every case permitted others like me to arrive at their desired goals. Your entire warm and helpful help entails much to me and much more to my colleagues. Thanks a lot; from all of us.

  7. coach outlet

    Julio 7, 2019 at 3:23 am

    I want to show thanks to this writer for rescuing me from this predicament. After browsing through the the web and obtaining advice that were not pleasant, I believed my life was over. Being alive without the presence of strategies to the issues you’ve sorted out as a result of your good report is a critical case, as well as ones which might have badly damaged my entire career if I hadn’t noticed your web site. Your actual capability and kindness in handling all the things was vital. I’m not sure what I would have done if I hadn’t come across such a solution like this. I can also at this moment relish my future. Thanks very much for this reliable and effective guide. I won’t hesitate to refer your web page to anyone who will need tips about this issue.

  8. birkin bag

    Julio 7, 2019 at 5:51 pm

    I must show my appreciation to the writer just for rescuing me from this particular incident. After looking out through the search engines and getting things that were not helpful, I believed my entire life was over. Being alive without the presence of solutions to the issues you have fixed through the posting is a crucial case, as well as ones which may have in a wrong way affected my career if I hadn’t noticed your web blog. Your own training and kindness in playing with every part was priceless. I am not sure what I would have done if I had not discovered such a subject like this. I can also now relish my future. Thanks a lot very much for this specialized and amazing guide. I won’t think twice to refer your site to any individual who should receive recommendations on this issue.

  9. lebron shoes

    Julio 8, 2019 at 8:00 am

    I wish to express some appreciation to the writer just for rescuing me from this particular dilemma. After exploring through the world-wide-web and finding things that were not powerful, I was thinking my life was done. Being alive devoid of the solutions to the difficulties you’ve solved as a result of this guideline is a serious case, as well as the ones that might have in a negative way affected my career if I had not come across your blog. The understanding and kindness in controlling the whole lot was valuable. I don’t know what I would’ve done if I hadn’t encountered such a thing like this. I’m able to at this point look ahead to my future. Thanks a lot very much for this skilled and amazing guide. I will not think twice to suggest the website to any person who would like support about this subject matter.

  10. moncler

    Julio 8, 2019 at 6:51 pm

    I’m just writing to make you understand what a wonderful discovery our daughter undergone reading through your web page. She noticed some issues, which include how it is like to have an ideal giving nature to get men and women with no trouble learn about a number of grueling matters. You really exceeded visitors’ expectations. Thank you for rendering those invaluable, dependable, edifying and in addition unique guidance on your topic to Emily.

  11. yeezy boost 350 v2

    Julio 8, 2019 at 7:43 pm

    WONDERFUL Post.thanks for share..more wait .. ?

  12. jordan shoes

    Julio 9, 2019 at 8:11 am

    I together with my buddies came looking through the excellent thoughts found on your site and then all of the sudden got an awful feeling I never expressed respect to the web blog owner for them. All the young men were as a consequence glad to study them and have in truth been loving them. We appreciate you turning out to be considerably helpful and for choosing some notable ideas millions of individuals are really eager to learn about. My honest apologies for not saying thanks to earlier.

  13. jordan 4

    Julio 10, 2019 at 5:49 am

    Thank you for your entire labor on this site. My niece takes pleasure in making time for investigation and it is obvious why. We hear all regarding the compelling ways you produce simple strategies by means of the web site and therefore attract contribution from website visitors on that article while our favorite princess is without a doubt understanding a whole lot. Take pleasure in the rest of the year. You are always conducting a dazzling job.

  14. adidas stan smith women

    Julio 10, 2019 at 5:12 pm

    I wish to convey my appreciation for your kind-heartedness giving support to persons that need assistance with your study. Your personal commitment to passing the message throughout appeared to be quite insightful and have specifically enabled many people like me to arrive at their objectives. The important guide signifies a lot a person like me and much more to my fellow workers. Thank you; from all of us.

  15. fila sneakers

    Julio 11, 2019 at 4:19 am

    I want to express my appreciation to you just for rescuing me from such a situation. Just after searching through the online world and finding thoughts which were not powerful, I assumed my entire life was well over. Being alive without the answers to the issues you’ve fixed by means of the review is a serious case, and ones that would have in a wrong way damaged my career if I had not come across your web blog. Your main training and kindness in playing with all the details was valuable. I’m not sure what I would have done if I hadn’t encountered such a thing like this. I can at this time look ahead to my future. Thank you very much for your impressive and sensible help. I won’t think twice to suggest your blog post to any individual who should receive recommendations on this problem.

  16. longchamp

    Julio 11, 2019 at 4:19 pm

    I happen to be writing to let you be aware of of the exceptional discovery my child encountered checking your blog. She came to understand some issues, with the inclusion of how it is like to possess an awesome coaching nature to get the mediocre ones smoothly learn about a variety of complicated issues. You truly exceeded visitors’ desires. Many thanks for rendering such valuable, trusted, informative and unique tips on that topic to Jane.

  17. hogan outlet

    Julio 12, 2019 at 2:08 am

    I am glad for commenting to let you know of the exceptional discovery my wife’s child gained visiting the blog. She picked up so many details, including what it’s like to possess an ideal giving mood to have many people effortlessly fully understand several problematic matters. You actually exceeded her desires. Thank you for showing those priceless, safe, revealing and also cool tips about that topic to Emily.

  18. air jordan shoes

    Julio 12, 2019 at 3:25 pm

    My spouse and i got very delighted Albert managed to deal with his inquiry with the precious recommendations he came across in your weblog. It’s not at all simplistic to simply find yourself giving out guidelines which often some other people may have been making money from. And we all already know we have got the writer to give thanks to because of that. The explanations you’ve made, the straightforward site navigation, the relationships you can aid to instill – it’s everything wonderful, and it’s making our son in addition to us feel that the content is exciting, and that is unbelievably serious. Thanks for the whole thing!

  19. yeezy boost 350

    Julio 12, 2019 at 8:21 pm

    This web site is known as a stroll-via for all the information you needed about this and didn抰 know who to ask. Glimpse right here, and you抣l undoubtedly discover it.

  20. nike air max

    Julio 13, 2019 at 1:08 am

    I wish to show some thanks to you just for bailing me out of such a instance. As a result of scouting throughout the world wide web and getting things which were not productive, I believed my entire life was done. Being alive devoid of the solutions to the issues you have fixed through your main article content is a serious case, and those which could have badly damaged my career if I had not come across your site. Your primary knowledge and kindness in dealing with every part was tremendous. I don’t know what I would have done if I had not come upon such a thing like this. I am able to at this point look ahead to my future. Thanks a lot very much for this high quality and results-oriented guide. I will not hesitate to recommend your blog to anybody who needs counselling on this issue.

  21. converse outlet store

    Julio 13, 2019 at 3:46 pm

    I intended to send you this very little observation to thank you the moment again about the pretty views you have contributed in this article. It has been really seriously generous of you to allow publicly exactly what a number of people might have offered for sale for an e-book to generate some money for their own end, most importantly since you could possibly have tried it in the event you desired. Those basics likewise acted to be a easy way to comprehend other individuals have a similar zeal similar to my own to find out good deal more pertaining to this condition. I think there are a lot more enjoyable instances in the future for individuals who scan your blog post.

  22. nike huarache

    Julio 14, 2019 at 2:32 am

    I precisely wanted to thank you so much yet again. I do not know the things that I could possibly have made to happen in the absence of the actual ways discussed by you about such industry. This was a very scary issue for me personally, but being able to see this specialised approach you managed it took me to jump over delight. I am grateful for this guidance and then have high hopes you are aware of an amazing job you’re providing educating many people through your webblog. I’m certain you haven’t met any of us.

  23. nike shox for women

    Julio 14, 2019 at 3:45 pm

    Thanks a lot for providing individuals with a very terrific chance to read from this web site. It’s usually so lovely and as well , stuffed with amusement for me personally and my office friends to visit the blog particularly three times per week to find out the newest stuff you have got. Not to mention, we are at all times motivated concerning the brilliant guidelines you serve. Certain 3 points on this page are without a doubt the simplest we have ever had.

  24. goyard bags

    Julio 15, 2019 at 2:50 pm

    I am writing to make you understand what a incredible experience my wife’s child enjoyed checking yuor web blog. She noticed plenty of things, which include what it’s like to possess an ideal giving mindset to get other individuals very easily understand a variety of very confusing things. You undoubtedly did more than our expected results. Thank you for supplying such valuable, healthy, educational and even unique thoughts on this topic to Ethel.

  25. air max 95

    Julio 15, 2019 at 10:27 pm

    Needed to draft you a bit of word just to thank you very much over again for those wonderful suggestions you’ve contributed above. It is really incredibly generous of you to give unhampered just what numerous people could have distributed for an electronic book to make some profit for their own end, especially considering that you could possibly have tried it if you ever desired. Those strategies likewise served to provide a easy way to be certain that other people have similar desire just as my own to find out very much more related to this condition. I’m certain there are numerous more pleasurable sessions ahead for individuals who check out your website.

  26. air jordans

    Julio 16, 2019 at 10:00 pm

    I wanted to post you the tiny remark so as to say thanks yet again relating to the awesome methods you’ve provided on this site. It’s shockingly open-handed with people like you to grant unhampered exactly what a few individuals would’ve made available for an e-book to help with making some bucks for themselves, most importantly since you could have tried it in the event you wanted. These advice likewise worked to be the great way to fully grasp other people have the identical desire the same as my very own to figure out very much more on the subject of this problem. I am sure there are millions of more enjoyable situations in the future for those who read carefully your site.

  27. yeezy boost 350

    Julio 17, 2019 at 12:17 am

    I found your weblog site on google and verify a couple of of your early posts. Proceed to keep up the superb operate. I just further up your RSS feed to my MSN News Reader. Looking for forward to studying more from you later on!?

  28. nike air max

    Julio 17, 2019 at 12:49 pm

    I precisely wanted to thank you so much all over again. I’m not certain what I would have achieved without the type of points contributed by you over such a problem. It was actually a real challenging setting in my position, nevertheless witnessing your well-written mode you processed the issue made me to jump over fulfillment. I will be happy for the guidance and as well , trust you recognize what an amazing job you happen to be undertaking educating most people through your websites. Probably you have never got to know all of us.

  29. supreme shirt

    Julio 30, 2019 at 8:36 am

    Thanks so much for giving everyone an extraordinarily remarkable chance to read articles and blog posts from this blog. It can be so useful and as well , full of a good time for me personally and my office peers to visit your blog nearly 3 times in one week to read through the new things you have got. And of course, I am just at all times motivated with all the breathtaking guidelines served by you. Certain 4 tips in this post are clearly the very best I’ve ever had.

  30. yeezy boost

    Julio 31, 2019 at 2:27 pm

    I needed to create you the bit of word to say thanks as before with your incredible solutions you have contributed on this page. This is so open-handed of people like you to deliver extensively all some people would have sold for an electronic book to end up making some cash on their own, particularly since you might have done it if you ever decided. Those basics additionally served like a fantastic way to be sure that most people have the identical eagerness just like my personal own to grasp more around this issue. I believe there are several more enjoyable times ahead for individuals that read your site.

  31. nike air vapormax

    Agosto 1, 2019 at 1:25 pm

    Thanks for your own efforts on this site. Kate take interest in setting aside time for research and it’s simple to grasp why. My spouse and i notice all concerning the compelling way you present insightful suggestions via the web site and in addition encourage response from some other people about this concept plus our own child is understanding a lot. Have fun with the rest of the new year. You’re the one performing a useful job.

  32. golden goose outlet

    Agosto 3, 2019 at 12:24 pm

    I needed to draft you a very little observation to thank you so much as before on your beautiful principles you’ve contributed at this time. It was quite incredibly open-handed of people like you to provide unreservedly precisely what many individuals might have offered for sale for an electronic book to help with making some dough on their own, specifically given that you could have tried it in the event you desired. These tactics additionally acted to provide a fantastic way to comprehend many people have a similar zeal similar to mine to know the truth a little more on the subject of this condition. I’m certain there are numerous more fun moments up front for individuals that scan through your blog.

  33. yeezy boost

    Agosto 4, 2019 at 8:49 pm

    Youre so cool! I dont suppose Ive learn something like this before. So good to seek out any person with some unique thoughts on this subject. realy thanks for starting this up. this web site is one thing that’s needed on the internet, someone with somewhat originality. helpful job for bringing one thing new to the internet!

  34. nike epic react flyknit

    Agosto 5, 2019 at 9:06 am

    I would like to convey my admiration for your generosity in support of individuals who really want help on this particular concept. Your personal dedication to getting the solution all around turned out to be exceedingly effective and have in every case made those much like me to realize their pursuits. Your personal insightful key points denotes so much a person like me and extremely more to my office workers. Regards; from all of us.

  35. kyrie shoes

    Agosto 6, 2019 at 6:00 am

    I have to express thanks to you just for bailing me out of this type of trouble. After researching throughout the the net and meeting ways that were not helpful, I assumed my entire life was done. Existing without the presence of solutions to the issues you have sorted out through your entire review is a serious case, and those which could have negatively damaged my career if I hadn’t come across your web blog. Your primary capability and kindness in touching every part was vital. I am not sure what I would have done if I had not encountered such a stuff like this. It’s possible to at this point relish my future. Thank you very much for your reliable and amazing help. I will not be reluctant to recommend your web page to any person who ought to have guide about this matter.

  36. michael kors outlet

    Agosto 8, 2019 at 2:35 am

    I’m also writing to make you be aware of of the wonderful experience my cousin’s child encountered reading through your webblog. She picked up a wide variety of details, with the inclusion of what it’s like to have a great helping mindset to make others clearly know precisely selected complex things. You truly exceeded people’s expected results. Many thanks for giving the productive, healthy, educational and as well as fun thoughts on the topic to Kate.

  37. supreme

    Agosto 13, 2019 at 6:05 pm

    I needed to create you one little bit of observation so as to say thanks a lot once again regarding the spectacular tactics you have documented above. It’s simply shockingly open-handed with people like you to make easily all that a number of us could possibly have sold as an ebook to get some bucks for themselves, certainly seeing that you might have tried it in case you considered necessary. These basics in addition acted like the great way to be aware that some people have similar eagerness just as my very own to grasp a whole lot more in regard to this condition. I believe there are a lot more pleasant opportunities ahead for many who discover your website.

  38. moncler

    Agosto 15, 2019 at 7:38 pm

    I precisely had to thank you so much all over again. I’m not certain what I might have sorted out in the absence of the smart ideas revealed by you directly on that question. It seemed to be the frightful concern in my circumstances, but taking note of this skilled way you solved the issue took me to leap for fulfillment. I will be grateful for the work and thus hope that you find out what a great job you have been providing training other individuals using your web blog. Most likely you have never encountered all of us.

  39. valentino shoes

    Agosto 17, 2019 at 4:59 pm

    I have to show my appreciation to this writer for rescuing me from this type of issue. Just after looking through the world-wide-web and meeting tips which are not beneficial, I figured my entire life was done. Living without the approaches to the issues you’ve fixed as a result of your article content is a critical case, as well as the kind that would have in a wrong way affected my entire career if I had not noticed your blog. Your capability and kindness in playing with all the things was vital. I am not sure what I would have done if I hadn’t come across such a subject like this. I’m able to now relish my future. Thanks a lot so much for the skilled and result oriented guide. I will not be reluctant to refer your web blog to anyone who should have support on this matter.

  40. kd 11 shoes

    Agosto 18, 2019 at 9:59 am

    Thanks so much for providing individuals with an exceptionally special chance to discover important secrets from this web site. It is always very kind and as well , stuffed with amusement for me and my office fellow workers to search your website at minimum 3 times every week to study the newest guidance you have. And definitely, I’m also actually satisfied with all the special pointers you give. Certain 4 facts on this page are undeniably the very best I have ever had.

Leave a Reply

Su dirección de correo no se hará público. Los campos requeridos están marcados *

To Top