ECONOMÍA

Análisis: Barreras burocráticas municipales – Caso La Victoria

Las municipalidades distritales tienen las facultades para regular la realización de actividades económicas dentro de su competencia material y territorial. Ello se realiza a través de la emisión de normas contenidas en sus Ordenanzas Municipales. Las mismas que deben ser compatibles con lo prescrito en la Constitución, la Ley Orgánica de Municipalidades, las leyes de simplificación administrativa y las políticas públicas del Estado. Una norma municipal que contravenga o exceda sus disposiciones será considerada como una barrera burocrática ilegal o irrazonable.

¿Qué es una barrera burocrática?

Según el numeral 3 del artículo 3, del DL. 1256 (Decreto Legislativo que aprueba la Ley de Prevención y Eliminación de Barreras Burocráticas) es una exigencia, prohibición y/o cobro que imponga cualquier entidad. Con el fin de condicionar o restringir el acceso y/o permanencia de los agentes económicos en el mercado. 

¿Todas las barreras burocráticas deben eliminarse?

El rol de las municipalidades distritales es intervenir regulando ciertos aspectos de la actividad económica. Adecuando así los intereses particulares a la realización del bien común. Sin embargo, muchas veces se realiza un uso indiscriminado de estas facultades normativas, llegando a cometer abuso del Derecho. Son estas normas ilegales o irrazonables las que deben ser eliminadas, mas no la intervención municipal justificada.

¿Cuál es el órgano resolutivo en materia de Eliminación de Barreras Burocráticas?

El INDECOPI, mediante su Comisión de Eliminación de Barreras Burocráticas y las Comisiones de las Oficinas Regionales. Las cuales determinan, de oficio o de parte, si una norma específica es ilegal o irrazonable. Sus resoluciones permiten la inaplicación de dicha norma para el caso en concreto, mas no la derogación de esta, pues carecen de competencia jurisdiccional.

¿Cómo identificamos una norma ilegal o irrazonable?

En primer lugar, es ilegal cuando contravienen expresamente normas prescritas en la Constitución, la Ley Orgánica de Municipalidades, normas de simplificación administrativa o políticas públicas del Estado. En segundo lugar, existen indicios de falta de razonabilidad cuando se trate de:

1) Medidas arbitrarias. –Normas que no persiguen un interés legítimo y/o no cuentan con una justificación idónea.

2) Medidas desproporcionadas. – Normas que intervienen excesiva y desproporcionadamente frente a la salvaguarda del fin legítimo. Existiendo a la vez medidas alternas que alcanzan el mismo fin, pero con menos intervención.

Caso La Victoria

Analicemos el caso del emporio comercial de Gamarra para determinar si nos encontramos frente a un caso de barreras burocráticas ilegales o irrazonables.

La Municipalidad de La Victoria ordenó el cierre de tres días en dicha zona, a través de la Ordenanza 035-MDLV.  Medida que pretende la recuperación de espacios públicos y la eliminación del comercio informal y ambulatorio. Ello en respuesta al caos excesivo en dicha zona, el cual ponía en riesgo la seguridad de los comerciantes y los consumidores ante cualquier desastre.

¿Es esta medida ilegal o irrazonable?

Nos referimos, específicamente, a la norma que prohíbe el comercio ambulatorio. Si bien restringe la actividad económica para un grupo determinado, debemos decir que se trata de una medida legal y razonable, por las siguientes razones.

Primero, respecto a la legalidad, la emisión de dicha Ordenanza se encuentra dentro de las facultades asignadas al Consejo Distrital de La Victoria. Además, ha sido emitida en armonía con las normas pertinentes ya mencionadas.

Segundo, respecto a la razonabilidad, dicha norma cuenta con un fin legítimo expreso en la Ordenanza. El cual se refiere a la seguridad pública y a la recuperación de espacios públicos, como pistas y veredas que permitan el libre tránsito. Asimismo, tal norma es una medida altamente intervencionista, pues elimina todo tipo de comercio informal y ambulatorio.  Pero que tiene justificación frente al gran caos que se vivía durante años en Gamarra. Habiéndose emitido, en anteriores gestiones, normas menos radicales que no tuvieron éxito alguno.

Del análisis previo, se concluye que, en este caso, la norma emitida por el Consejo Municipal de La Victoria no constituye una barrera burocrática ilegal o irrazonable. Sin embargo, es necesario seguir vigilantes a la emisión de normas estatales que sí podrían configurarse como tal.

Isabel Cajavilca
Estudiante de Derecho en la PUCP. Le fascina la estrecha relación entre la Economía y el Derecho como medio para entender y mejorar las política públicas.
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