CULTURA

Reseña: “Memorias de una osa polar” de Yoko Tawada

Anagrama, 2018. 296 pp. S/. 79

“Mi voluntad de vivir residía básicamente en las garras y en mi lengua”, confiesa una osa polar en la primera página de su diario reduciendo sus ganas de vivir a defenderse y tratar de comunicarse con quienes le rodean cada vez que puede. Si ya para muchos es cada vez más difícil adaptarse en un mundo cada vez más competitivo, ¿se imaginan hacerlo siendo una especie en extinción? Yoko Tawada (Tokio, 1960) esboza una fábula en tres actos en las que se pregunta cuáles son aquellos rasgos de nuestra humanidad que solían ser inherentes y fuimos olvidando o defenestrando, siendo la vulnerabilidad y el miedo los rasgos que aún nos hermanan en los escenarios menos favorables.

“Estudios sobre la nieve” sería una mejor traducción del título en alemán de esta novela, y aclararía mucho mejor la trama de esta novela, en la que abuela, madre e hijo osezno van narrándonos su devenir en el mundo de los humanos, en el que transitan de manera incierta alejados de la nieve del Polo Norte, su hábitat ancestral y cuya imagen aun así se encuentra enraizada en lo más profundo de su consciencia. Tawada usa los recursos de la fábula con un planteamiento el en que no se termina de definir de forma clara  la situación de los osos polares, a veces encerrados como cualquier animal doméstico, trabajando en un zoo sin hablar la lengua de los humanos y en otras interactuando con el público alrededor suyo como cualquier adulto común y corriente. Aún así logra, sobre todo en la primera y tercera parte darle fluidez a su propuesta, que goza de muy buenos momentos y lúcidas observaciones sobre distintos campos sociales, como el sector editorial o el ámbito académico:

Las reuniones son como los conejos: La mayoría de las veces solo sirven para concluir que hay que celebrar otra reunión. Se multiplican rápidamente. Y si no se hace nada para remediarlo, se vuelven tan numerosas que no somos capaces de satisfacer la demanda, por más que cada uno sacrifique a diario la mayor parte de su tiempo con más reuniones. “(pág. 21)

O la necesidad vital por comunicarse:

“En mis oídos comenzó a crecer moho, porque ya nadie hablaba conmigo.” (pág., 46)

Y si bien por ratos  la narración deja al descubierto el afán de la autora por moralizar y denunciar mucho de los males que fueron intensificándose en el siglo XX, con un tono progresista que amenaza con romper el hechizo de la ficción, el libro se salva  por el manejo destacado de las voces por parte de Tawada, recurso en el que se apoya para mostrar los sentimientos de los oseznos al reflejarse en humanos que al igual que ellos, no se sienten parte de un mundo en el que no cumplen con los requisitos de “normalidad” que se busca por parte de ellos. Y no lo hace en un tono exclusivamente melancólico. Resulta hilarante por ratos lo ridículo que son muchas de las actitudes de nuestra especie y el narcisismo provocado por nuestra evolución, exhibido por ejemplo en la desesperación de muchos por extender su legado más allá de la muerte: “Me decepcionó comprobar cuántas autobiografías voluminosas existían ya. Llenaban por completo los diez pisos de aquella estantería. Al parecer, la autobiografía es el género que escribe cualquiera que sea capaz de sostener una pluma” (pág. 59); el afán de subyugar a su prójimo: “Los seres humanos me intentaban vender su generosidad demasiado a menudo, con el único fin de manipularme mejor.” (pág. 69); o nuestra tendencia a la autodestrucción: “El Homo Sapiens no está hecho para el combate, debería emular a las liebres y los ciervos y aprender las virtudes y el arte de la huida. Pero el combate y la guerra le encanta. ¿Quién ha podido crear una criatura tanto tonta? Hay personas que afirman ser la imagen de Dios. Eso sería una ofensa para Dios.” (pág. 79)

Y así uno podría seguir mostrando extractos de este libro que sin ser deslumbrante, tiene momentos de una belleza literaria que hacen que valga la pena su lectura. Para leer con un lápiz en la mano.

Sebastián Uribe
25 años. Economista de la Universidad de Piura y administrador de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Estuvo en el curso de Economía del BCR. Ha publicado reseñas en El Dominical, El Roommate y Solo Tempestad. Su blog personal es “Un perro romántico”. En la actualidad anda buscando espacio para sus libros.
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