CULTURA

Opinión: La falocracia que nos llegó por barco

BOTERO

El problema de la violencia de género, que es un síntoma del machismo (falocracia), tiene bases ontológicas muy antiguas.  

Cuando le preguntaron al pintor colombiano por qué pintaba “gordas”, él respondió que “no pintaba gordas, sino que pintaba el volumen”. Las mujeres de su obra demuestran que la belleza no está, necesariamente, en la estética contemporánea.

La situación de la mujer en la América precolombina era muy distinta a la actual. Se tiene evidencia de que existieron mujeres que ocuparon cargos, políticos, religiosos, sociales, importantes. En el 2006, un equipo de arqueólogos peruanos encontraron los restos de una mujer tatuada con formas de insectos y mamíferos, por lo que era considerada un ser sagrado. Hoy se sabe que la Señora de Cao, fue una importante líder de los mochica, comparada solamente con el Señor de Sipán, y cuya muerte posiblemente se daba a una crisis post parto.

Rostworowski, quien estudió las civilizaciones prehispánicas hasta su muerte en el 2016, afirmó que existían dos clases de mujeres durante el incanato: la mujer dócil representada por Mama Ocllo, y la mujer guerrera representada por Mama Huaco; ambas esposas de Manco Capac, con la salvedad de esta última también era su madre. La historiadora hizo hincapié en la existencia de mujeres curacas cuando arribaron los españoles al Nuevo Mundo, lo que quiere decir que el poder político-militar no era exclusivo de los varones.

Incluso, en la antigua Piura, existían las Capullanas, un grupo de mujeres que no solamente ejercían el poder, sino que también podían rechazar maridos y casarse nuevamente; como describe la historiadora en su artículo titulado ‘La mujer en la época prehispánica’.

El concepto de mujer que trajeron los españoles del Viejo Mundo fue radicalmente distinto. La estructura del pensamiento occidental de la época tuvo dos bases ontológicas profundamente machistas: la herencia grecorromana, donde las mujeres era consideradas objetos circunscritos al varón y el cristianismo medieval. A la mujer europea de aquellos tiempos se le prohibía la educación y se les relegaba a las tareas domésticas. Esto, que llegó por barco, fue implantado en el Virreinato del Perú y los rezagos continúan hasta el día de hoy.

Cuentan los cronistas que los soldados españoles se sentían avergonzados de luchar, y muchas veces perder, contra líderes militares mujeres, por lo que dichas escenas fueron eliminadas de la historia oficial que, según Galeano, ha sido escrita por “machos, varones y militares”.  En el Perú virreinal, la mujer interesaba poco o nada.

Pero, ¿todo esto nos permite justificar la falocracia? No, la violencia y denigración no es justificable. Al revés, esto representa que no hemos podido sacudirnos de las ideas erróneas que se nos impusieron. La Historia está ahí para que podamos sacar lecciones de ella. Hoy se permite el voto a la mujer y la educación; pero no es suficiente.

Las mujeres y los hombres tienen los mismos derechos, el occidente ya se está sacudiendo de las ideas erróneas. Abracemos los buenos cambios, reflexionemos, detengámonos a observar a nuestros antepasados prehispánicos y no nos olvidemos de aplaudir la estética heterodoxa de Botero.

 

Paul Montjoy Forti
Director de Punto y Coma. Egresado de derecho por la Universidad de Piura. Es autor de los libros “Relatos desde el hígado” y “Quijotes ultramarinos”.
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