CULTURA

Opinión: La corrupción tiene una historia

 

«¿En qué momento se jodió el Perú?»

Funcionarios, políticos, empresarios y mandatarios deshonestos ponen a prueba por estos días nuestra capacidad de soportar el hedor de la corrupción. Este tiempo de revelaciones y procesos en vivo y en directo nos hace preguntar con la frase vargasllosiana «¿Cuándo se jodió el Perú?» y, sobre todo, cuándo dejará de estarlo.

ÉL QUE MÁS SUPO

Si alguien supo de la corrupción en nuestra historia fue Alfonso Quiróz Norris (1956-2013), notable académico que la investigó como pocos. Quiróz nació en Lima, hizo los estudios básicos en el Markham College y los superiores en la Pontificia Universidad Católica donde siguió la carrera de Historia, bajo la guía de maestros eminentes como Franklin Pease-García Irigoyen y el jesuita Jeffrey Klaiber, entre otros. Su tesis de bachillerato (La consolidación de la deuda interna peruana, 1850-1858) lo mostró como un brillante novel investigador.

Hizo la maestría y el doctorado -becado- en la Universidad de Columbia; siempre curioso, estudió economía en aquella universidad y se acercó a la maestría en esa disciplina que tanto complementaba su interés histórico específico. El talentoso Quiróz se movió con soltura en el Archivo de Indias (Sevilla), en los National Archives (Washington DC) o enseñando en la Universidad de Cambridge. En materia de historia económica de América Latina fue una autoridad mundial.

EL LIBRO DE REVELACIONES

Historia de la corrupción en el Perú (2103) fue el testamento intelectual y cívico de Quiróz, a quien la muerte llamó muy temprano. El libro revela los mecanismos de corrupción de finales de la Colonia (1780), los asociados al militarismo de la neonata República, el esplendor fatuo de la exportación del guano, los modos de violar la caja fiscal posteriores a la infausta Guerra del Pacífico (¿Habrá alguna guerra no infausta?).

Ya en el siglo XX, el demonio de la corrupción se consolidó en el Oncenio de Leguía y se nutrió en el descontrol y despilfarro de los gobiernos militares, con especial atención al de               Velasco Alvarado-Morales Bermúdez (1968-1980). No pasó por alto el de Alan García (1985-1990) con su descalabro económico y las muchas sombras éticas que dejó sin resolver. El capítulo final lo dedicó al gobierno de Alberto Fujimori (1990-2000) -con Vladimiro Montesinos como poder tras el trono- revelando un dramático nivel de autoritarismo y corrupción:  se pasó de un gobierno en el que hay corrupción a uno que es intrínsecamente corrompido y corruptógeno.

¿Un saldo? La corrupción es congénita a la Colonia y a la República y son los gobiernos dictatoriales, civiles o militares, los que incurren en mayor deshonestidad (la omnipotencia del sentirse sobre la ley o creerse la ley misma). Si sumamos la precariedad del Estado -caótico, elefantiásico, informal -tenemos servido el malvado cóctel.

En fin: se trata de una investigación densa y fascinante rica en datos históricos, estadísticas, referencias cruzadas y agudas observaciones (imperdible el apéndice «Cuadros y figuras»).

Aprender de los errores del pasado ayuda a no caer en los mismos males, por eso el libro de Quiroz es lectura obligada y urgente. Y aunque no hay vacuna contra la codicia, la esperanza         -terca como la vida- jamás se pierde. Ojalá que las generaciones futuras vean nuestros tiempos de cinismo y robo como una tara superada y se pregunten, aliviados: «¿En qué momento dejó de estar jodido el Perú?».

Hernán Yamanaka
Lector obsesivo, conversador impenitente. Estudió educación, filosofía y teología.
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