CULTURA

Opinión: Breve historia de la corrupción

La corrupción está inscrita en la larga lista de los males que continúan azotando a la humanidad, mostrando continuidad desde la aparición de los Estados y las primeras civilizaciones. Los sobornos, la malversación de fondos, los fraudes, el tráfico de influencias, los escándalos financieros y políticos, los contratos ilícitos, etc. Todas estas formas de corrupción tienen una extensa historia que han estado frecuentes en todas las culturas del mundo.

Corrupción en el Antiguo Egipto

Algunos historiadores determinan que el primer caso de corrupción se dio en el Antiguo Egipto y se le conoce como “El Tebasgate”. Ahman Saleh, investigador egipcio, descifró la inscripción de un antiguo papiro en el cual se contaba la historia de Peser. Éste fue un funcionario de Tebas que en el tiempo del faraón Ramsés IX se asoció con un grupo de saqueadores de tumbas para realizar fechorías. Pasó el corto tiempo y los corruptos fueron denunciados y enjuiciados, pero, ¿cómo se cerró el caso? Según Ahman Saleh, no hubo ningún proceso eficaz para que los implicados sean condenados. El caso pasó totalmente desapercibo dando muestras de un sistema de justicia débil y cómplice de actos de corrupción. (1)

Llegaría en el año 1323 a.C una mano dura para enmendar los actos de corrupción. Se trata de Dyeserjeperura Setepenra Horemheb Meryamón, último faraón de la dinastía, quien estableció un decreto muy importante para el derecho egipcio posterior. El código esboza lo siguiente: Se castigará con implacable rigor a los funcionarios que, abusando de su poder, roben cosechas o ganado a los campesinos bajo el pretexto de cobrar impuestos. El castigo será de 100 bastonazos y en plaza pública. Si el involucrado fuera un alto funcionario de la casa real, la pena será de Muerte”.

 

Críticas filosóficas sobre la corrupción

En la antigua Grecia, la corrupción ha sido vista desde la esencia misma del hombre. Platón señala en “La Republica” que en las sociedades conviven los peores hombres (los que están hechos de hierro y barro) y los mejores hombres (los de oro y plata), que tienen una visión de la vida más elevada. Cuando los primeros logran inmiscuirse en los asuntos de  la sociedad política, imponen un estilo de vida vicioso y conducen hacia una corrupción general.

Para Aristóteles, los principios éticos, tanto la honestidad como las buenas costumbres, son los valores fundamentales para luchar contra esta plaga. El principio aristotélico se enfoca en la realización personal del hombre y el papel que juega para buscar la felicidad a través del desarrollo de las virtudes intelectuales y morales. Dice el filósofo: “Tal el corrupto que creyéndose un dios es en realidad una bestia. Su pobreza consiste, como apunta Séneca, no en tener poco sino en querer tener cada vez más”. 2

El caso peruano

Según el destacado historiador peruano Alfonso Quiroz, el Perú es un caso clásico de un país afectado profundamente por una corrupción administrativa, política y sistemática, tanto en su pasado colonial como en el más reciente. De esa manera,  las prácticas corruptas en el Perú se dieron a partir del descuido en la administración pública. Quiroz nos cita en el capítulo 1 de su libro “Historia de la Corrupción en el Perú” la deplorable situación administrativa que existía en el poblado minero de Huancavelica en el año de 1757. El sistema de minería de mercurio estaba a punto de colapsar por las diversas corruptelas que causaban daños irreparables para la corona Española. Antonio de Ulloa, capitán de navío, fue quien se encargó de informar las prácticas de corrupción a través de informes, ensayos, manuscritos y la publicación del primer texto fundador de la tradición anticorrupción en las letras hispanas y peruanas; Noticias Secretas.

Para el historiador, la larga historia de gobiernos corruptos en el Perú comienza con el calvario que vivió Ulloa al descubrir, revelar e intentar resolver los problemas asociados a la corrupción administrativa en el tardío periodo colonial. 3

                                                                                                 

Fuentes:

  1. http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/spanish/misc/newsid_3541000/3541288.stm
  2. http://www.arteyfilosofia.com/escritos/corrupcion.html
  3. Véase Alfonso Quiroz: Historia de la Corrupción en el Perú, p.48-86

 

Alejandro Alva
Trujillo, 1997. Actualmente estudia en la Facultad de Derecho de la Universidad de Piura. Amante de la música, del buen libro y del café.
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