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Análisis: Escalada de la crisis humanitaria de los Rohingya en Myanmar

Se les ha llamado la minoría más perseguida en el planeta, también se les ha llamado como una población sin estado o los eternos extranjeros, cualquiera de estos nombres son aplicables para una etnia en Myanmar llamada los Rohingya que, tristemente, se ha visto perseguida por las fuerzas políticas de su país desde que este se independizó en 1948. En el 2017, la crisis llegó a un punto máximo luego de que un reporte de las Naciones Unidas (ONU) informara que aproximadamente 655,000 Rohingya hayan escapado, además de reportar sobre violaciones de parte de las fuerzas policiales y militares del gobierno.

Desde la independencia de Myanmar, este pueblo no ha recibido la ciudadanía en su totalidad, antes del gobierno militar, que se instauró en 1962, se le dio una identificación de ciudadano a aquellos Rohingya cuyos familiares habrían vivido en Myanmar por dos generaciones. Varias ocasiones han ocurrido que es el mismo gobierno el que ha incursionado en diferentes medidas para eliminar la presencia de esta etnia de la región, los pobladores se negaban a irse pues reclamaban que esa era la tierra de sus ancestros, algo que el gobierno de Myanmar niega hasta ahora.

Sin embargo, la crisis que causó  los refugiados inició cuando una onda de violencia sistemática inició hacia ellos en el 2012 cuando grupos de budistas radicales empezaron a atacarlos. Luego, sin pausa, el ejército del gobierno también inició ataques hacia su población resultando en 6700 muertes y causando que los Rohingya se vean obligados a escapar para evitar la muerte, ya sea en manos de los nacionalistas budistas o de las fuerzas del gobierno.

Una de las controversias más grandes de esta crisis no es sino la de la intervención de Aung San Suu Kyi, que hoy se ha visto más que involucrada en la controversia. Se le llamó la Mandela de Asia pues era el epítome de la protesta pacífica. Se le otorgó el Premio Nobel de la Paz debido a que se negó a incitar la violencia incluso dentro de los 15 años que estuvo en arresto domiciliario. Pero según los reportes de los grupos de Derechos Humanos, el gobierno controlado por Suu Kyi no solo evita tocar el tema de las matanzas sistemáticas, sino que alimenta la crisis excusando las acciones ocurridas diciendo que todo es una exageración por parte de la media occidental.

Aunque para estos Rohingyas la crisis está lejos de terminar, no todo es malo. En Bangladesh, varios grupos de voluntarios Sikh, una religión monoteísta del lugar, se han juntado para ayudar a los refugiados, ya sea con víveres o necesidades, o con servicios médicos o de seguridad. Algunos voluntarios han llegado al punto de albergar a los refugiados Rohingya. Son en esos momentos de oscuridad donde también resalta la bondad humana, ya sea en Siria con los cascos blancos o estos voluntarios Sikh en Bangladesh.

Carlos Neyra
Estudiante de Derecho con mención en Ciencias e Ingeniera. Ha sido miembro junior de Consultoría Externa y Desarrollo, y es parte del Equipo de Preparación del equipo Peruvian Universities
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