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¿Qué son y qué protección legal tienen los datos personales?

Imagen: Medium

Es común que los ciudadanos reciban una llamada telefónica o la visita en sus domicilios de asesores de ventas ofreciéndoles productos financieros u otro servicio, ante lo cual puede surgir la pregunta válida de cómo esas empresas obtuvieron datos sobre su dirección o número de teléfono.

En principio habría que explicar que la dirección y número de teléfono son datos personales que se encuentran protegidos por el numeral 6 del artículo 2 de la Constitución Política del Estado y por la Ley N° 29733, Ley de Protección de datos personales y su Reglamento D.S. N° 003-2013-JUS.

De acuerdo al numeral 4 del artículo 2 de la referida Ley, un dato personal es “toda información sobre una persona natural que la identifica o la hace identificable a través de medios que pueden ser razonablemente utilizados”.

Asimismo, el numeral 5 del mismo artículo define los datos personales sensibles como “los datos personales constituidos por los datos biométricos que por sí mismos pueden identificar al titular; datos referidos al origen racial y étnico; ingresos económicos; opiniones o convicciones políticas, religiosas, filosóficas o morales; afiliación sindical; e información relacionada a la salud o a la vida sexual”, por lo que puede concluirse que los titulares de los datos personales son las personas naturales.

De igual modo es importante mencionar que la misma ley contempla que para el tratamiento de los datos personales se requiere de la autorización previa, informada, expresa (escrito si se trata de datos sensibles) e inequívoca de su titular, disponiendo el artículo 14 del referido cuerpo normativo, los supuestos en los que no se requiere del consentimiento del titular de los datos personales para el tratamiento de los mismos.

Ahora bien, los numerales 1 y 17 de su artículo 2 hacen referencia a los bancos de datos personales, los cuales están definidos “como el conjunto organizado de datos personales, automatizado o no, independientemente del soporte, sea este físico, magnético, digital, óptico u otros que se creen, cualquiera fuere la forma o modalidad de su creación, formación, almacenamiento, organización y acceso”.

Así, los titulares de los bancos de datos personales son en su mayoría empresas a quienes facilitamos nuestros datos personales cuando contratamos un producto o servicio, por ello, corresponde que esas empresas tengan claro el tratamiento de la información que les proporcionan sus clientes. En este sentido, la ley establece que los titulares de los datos personales tienen derecho a exigir que estos sean tratados conforme a lo que esta manda, por ello, existen los denominados derechos ARCO (Acceso, Rectificación, Cancelación y Oposición).

Los derechos ARCO se ejercen presentando de manera gratuita una solicitud ante el titular del banco de datos personales, que será atendida en veinte días hábiles si se trata del derecho de acceso, y diez  si se trata de los derechos de rectificación, oposición y cancelación.

En caso que la solicitud de derechos ARCO no sea atendida dentro del plazo o es denegada, el titular del dato personal puede recurrir ante la Autoridad Nacional de Protección de Datos Personales (APDP), que se encargará de revisar si lo resuelto por el titular del Banco de datos personales se ajusta a la Ley.

Finalmente, en caso el titular de los datos personales no se encuentre conforme con el pronunciamiento de la APDP puede interponer en un plazo de 15 días hábiles un recurso de reconsideración, que una vez resuelto agota la vía administrativa.

Jhordan Pinillos
Abogado especialista en Derecho del Consumidor y estudiante de la Maestría en Derecho de la Empresa de la Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú (PUCP).
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