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Opinión: La clausura del programa Daca y su impacto socioeconómico

El programa Daca, por sus siglas en inglés “Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals,” es un programa que permitía a los inmigrantes americanos que fueron llevados como niños menores de 16 años a dicho territorio tener una residencia legal por el periodo de dos años, con la posibilidad de renovar este permiso. Para poder acceder al programa, los “dreamers” o soñadores, no deben tener ningún tipo de record criminal o representar una amenaza para la seguridad nacional, y deben ser estudiantes o, haber ido a la escuela o completado el servicio militar (Walters, 2017). Este permiso permitía a los inmigrantes continuar con su vida y actividades sin la posibilidad de ser deportados y, les permitía acceder a distintos servicios, como por ejemplo, tener una licencia de conducir.

La nueva política de la administración de Trump da por terminado este programa, afectando así a alrededor de 800,000 dreamers, los cuales a partir de marzo del 2020 podrían ser deportados (Siddiqui, 2017). Se ha creado un tiempo de gracia entre el 5 de septiembre de este año hasta el 5 de marzo del año próximo para que quienes tengan permisos que expiren en estas fechas puedan aplicar a una extensión por 6 meses. Sin embargo, los permisos que expiren a partir del 5 de marzo del 2018, pondrán a esos dreamers bajo el riesgo de deportación.

La decisión de terminar el programa DACA tiene grandes consecuencias sociales y económicas. Por un lado, existe un gran riesgo de deportación para aquellas personas quienes antes estaban protegidas por el programa, lo cual de darse a cabo, resultaría regresando a individuos a sus países de origen. Sin embargo, ellos realmente no conocen sus lugares de origen; ya que, emigraron muy jóvenes. Se les extirparía de sus comunidades y redes de apoyo, para ponerlos en otros contextos, donde no tienen las mismas oportunidades o redes que han construido en Estados Unidos. Esto, potencialmente podría generar grandes daños económicos y sociales a estas personas, quienes no eligieron, conscientemente, inmigrar a los estados Unidos y que, sin embargo, llaman a este país, hogar.

Ademas, esta decisión puede perjudicar económicamente al país. Actualmente, las compañías tienden a mudarse a los lugares donde se encuentra su mayor mercado. Objetivamente, China es actualmente un mercado más grande que el de Estados Unidos, por lo cual muchas compañías han decidido mudarse allá. Sin embargo, el mercado Americano sigue siendo mas productivo y teniendo mas capacidad adquisitiva, lo cual hace que diversas empresas se basen en Estados Unidos, dando así trabajo a ciudadanos Americanos. El reporte del Pew Research Center afirma que, al retirarse los baby boomers, el número de adultos en edad productiva va a decrecer más que en las últimas dos décadas, lo cual abrirá la necesidad de recibir inmigrantes para subsanar esta diferencia en capital humano (Passel & Cohn, 2017).

Sin una inmigración contínua y con la deportación de aquellos bajo el programa Daca, el país perdería su ventaja competitiva que lo hace ser el mercado de preferencia; ya que, perdería parte importante de su fuerza laboral y de consumo. Eliminar el programa no es solamente inmoral, al atentar contra individuos quienes no tuvieron responsabilidad en su inmigración, sino también es contraproducente para la economía americana. Si el discurso de Trump a lo largo de la campaña y la presidencia ha sido el de mejorar la economía, entonces ¿por qué está apoyando una política que la hiere?
Bibliografia:

Passel, J., & Cohn, D. (2017, March 8). Immigration projected to drive growth in U.S. working-age population through at least 2035. Retrieved from http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2017/03/08/immigration-projected-to-drive-growth-in-u-s-working-age-population-through-at-least-2035/

Siddiqui, S. (2017, September 5). Trump ends “Dreamers” program leaving fate of 800,000 uncertain. The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2017/sep/05/donald-trump-dreamers-program-young-immigrants

Walters, J. (2017, September 14). What is Daca and who are the Dreamers? The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2017/sep/04/donald-trump-what-is-daca-dreamers

Daniella Salazar
Estudiante de Ciencias Políticas y Derechos Humanos en Trinity College, Connecticut, con estudios de filosofía en la Universidad de Viena. Practicante para la FAO. Nómada por naturaleza y fiel creyente que todo sabe mejor con leche condensada.
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