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Opinión: “Heridas Abiertas”

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La visita del congresista de Alianza para el Progreso, Edwin Donayre al Lugar de la Memoria, la Tolerancia y la Inclusión Social (LUM) en la cual acusa a la mencionada institución de realizar apología al delito de terrorismo, ha sido ampliamente criticada en los últimos días. El pasado jueves, una moción multipartidaria ha sido presentada ante la Mesa de Partes del Congreso en la que se rechaza “toda forma de interferencia y estigmatización” del LUM, que buscan “institucionalizar discursos negacionistas sobre hechos totalmente comprobados”.

A tres años de haberse inaugurado el LUM, y a 15 años de la publicación del informe final de la Comisión de la Verdad y Reconciliación, las controversias en torno al conflicto armado interno que vivió nuestro país permanecen latentes y las heridas, sin cerrar. Por ello, resulta pertinente analizar esta denuncia del congresista Donayre a la luz de la proclamación de este año como el “Año del Diálogo y la Reconciliación Nacional” por parte del Gobierno.

En primer lugar, ¿qué significa reconciliación? ¿Reconciliación para quién? Esta palabra tiene diversos significados. Como lo indica el Centro Internacional para la Justicia Transicional (ICTJ), “(…) la reconciliación es el fin último que persigue cualquier sociedad traumatizada y dividida por acontecimientos violentos. No siempre es fácil precisar qué puede y debe significar la reconciliación, ya que depende del contexto político, cultural e histórico de cada sociedad.[1]

En América Latina, por ejemplo, las iniciativas que buscaron la rendición de cuentas por las violaciones de derechos humanos durante las dictaduras militares derechistas en los años 70 y 80 del siglo pasado, llevaron a muchos, “(…) a identificar el término reconciliación con la impunidad y la amnesia, cargando sobre las víctimas el peso del perdón, mientras se permitía que torturadores y asesinos escaparan de la justicia”[2].

En Perú, el juicio a Alberto Fujimori fue considerado hito para la lucha por la justicia y por la verdad, en que se condenaron los delitos que, con el aval del Estado se cometieron en el contexto del conflicto armado interno. No obstante, su posterior liberación por el presidente Kuczynski parece obedecer a un intento de reconciliación de arriba hacia abajo. Una imposición con fines políticos y no un genuino interés por fomentar la reconciliación entre peruanos y sentar las bases para afrontar las causas subyacentes del conflicto y evitar que este se repita. La denuncia del congresista Donayre son una clara señal que aún hay un largo camino por recorrer en este sentido.

 

Referencias:

[1] https://www.ictj.org/es/gallery-items/reconciliacion

[2] https://www.ictj.org/es/news/puede-la-justicia-internacional-fomentar-la-reconciliacion

Alonso Flores
Bachiller en Sociología por la PUCP, con estudios de posgrado en la Escuela de Gobierno y Políticas Públicas de la misma universidad. Cinco años trabajando temas de desarrollo, derechos humanos, análisis político y cooperación internacional. Un optimista cauto.
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