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Opinión: El liberalismo en el mundo

Nueva Zelanda es catalogado por tener libertades políticas y un gran respeto a los derechos humanos. Ocupa la quinta posición en libertad de prensa la cual solo se ve empañada por la presión política que restringe el acceso a información bajo ciertas instancias. Lo mismo sucede con Suiza, el cual es muy famoso por sus libertades y comportamientos atípicos al resto de los países del mundo. Se caracteriza por tener una democracia directa, permite a los ciudadanos introducir solicitudes de referéndum que pueden abolir las leyes aprobadas por el poder legislativo. Y es así como ocupa el séptimo lugar en libertad de prensa en el mundo.

Constantemente, se menciona que ambos son países con un gran rango de liberalismo. Pero, ¿qué exactamente es el liberalismo?

El liberalismo a diferencia del mercantilismo, vela por la libertad individual, donde cada persona es responsable de su desarrollo. Y no solo eso, procura vivir en un ambiente donde la regulación se justifique racionalmente y abarque varios puntos: social, económico y moral. Por ende, no defender algún grupo de interés específico. Sin embargo, no existe en el mundo una sociedad que practique el liberalismo del todo y la razón sigue la línea de que somos seres con diferentes razonamientos e ideales. Para que una sociedad llegue a un nivel de equidad en pensamientos se requeriría de una hegemonía cultural que es muy difícil de alcanzar. Además, se deben tomar en cuenta factores como la libertad de prensa y expresión en general; la libertad de asociación; la libertad en los procesos políticos; el pluralismo político y la participación; el funcionamiento del gobierno y las libertades individuales en general, así como la económica.

En Perú: Apropósito de la ley de Mulder

El mercantilismo es uno de los males que hemos tenido en Perú, sin embargo, liberalismo es algo nunca hemos tenido y se debe promover. Las razones por las que no existe en nuestro país son amplias, iniciando desde el congreso, cada uno vela por sus propios intereses y crean leyes o aplican normas para su propia conveniencia, no se dan cuenta que son representantes de democracia, sino que diseñan medidas cortoplacistas durante su estadía en el poder y luego se ven los resultados que en la mayoría no son fructíferos. Otro panorama sería en tener una visión medida en lapsos de tiempo y con fines claros.

La ley Mulder tiene varios aspectos para analizar tanto económico como social. Un enfoque economista hace mención a cifras que el Estado se ahorraría (cerca de 1 millón diario) en propaganda del gobierno en medios privados. Haciendo hincapié en que al tener un mayor ingreso este se podría ver distribuido en más agua y desagüe, construir y equipar aulas y niños menores a 3 años tengan sus vacunas completas. Sin embargo, no todo se puede cuantificar y la eficiencia económica no siempre es un buen criterio para medir los efectos de la economía, sino que también se debe medir su impacto social, sobre todo a los más vulnerables y afectados directamente con esta ley.

Un criterio preocupante es que la ley incorpora la creación de una página web donde todos los peruanos tengan acceso a actividades de Estado, sin embargo, no se está tomando en cuenta a las personas más pobres o que viven en zonas alejadas que no tienen el acceso a ella. Efectivamente, Alberto de Belaunde, Gino Costa y Vicente Zevallos precisan en que plantear como alternativa los medios digitales es desconocer la brecha digital que todavía existe en nuestro país, lo cual es muy cierto. Y los actores afectados serían los ciudadanos ya que no podrían informarse a través de los medios de comunicación, por lo tanto, no considero una externalidad negativa la oportunidad de contar con diversos medios de comunicación y difusión de anuncios siempre y cuando sus posiciones no se vean sesgadas, es decir, cumplan la función de informar y no sesgar a los ciudadanos a ciertos comportamientos. Por ende, con esta ley se aumentaría la brecha hacia el liberalismo para nuestro país.

 

 

Emely Cóndor
Estudiante de Economía de la Universidad del Pacífico. Cinéfila de corazón. Investigadora inquieta. Adicta a los dulces y al café.
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