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Opinión: Ley de promoción agraria, ¿economía o bienestar?

Foto: Interempresas

Por: María Alejandra Gutierrez

En el pasado mes de junio, se aprobó prorrogar la ley nº 27360 o Ley de Promoción Agraria hasta diciembre del año 2031, la cual entra en función el 1 de enero del 2019.  Esta consiste en una legislación laboral específica para el sector agrario, que implica la contratación por periodos determinados y estaciones, que depende de la actividad agraria; es decir, en los meses de alta demanda, como la época de cosecha, se contratarán más empleados para agilizar la producción. Es por ello que contratar en un puesto fijo a agrícolas sería impensable, ya que al variar la actividad todos los meses, no sería factible tener a todos los trabajadores en planilla a lo largo del año. En el Perú, la revolución del agro se debe a las exportaciones, y para hacer posible este boom se creó esta iniciativa para productores agrarios. Esta ley se aprobó en el presente año con los votos de la bancada de Fuerza Popular, y proviene del gobierno de Alberto Fujimori.

Algunos aspectos que incluye este régimen son la contratación por periodo determinado y el derecho a recibir una remuneración diaria mayor o igual a los S/.16.00 cuando laboren más de 4 horas diarias en promedio; dicho ingreso incluye la Compensación por Tiempo de Servicios (CTS) y las dos gratificaciones anuales, que se actualizarán en proporción a la remuneración mínima vital. Además, incluye un descanso vacacional de 15 días calentario remunerados por año de servicio, una indemnización en caso de despido arbitrario y la posbilidad de afiliarse a Essalud, haciendo un aporte del 4% de su salario. Por su parte, el actual ministro de trabajo, Christian Sánchez, afirmó que los ajustes que se pide desde su sector están referido a los derechos laborales de los trabajadores bajo esta modalidad laboral, como un mes de vacaciones, CTS, entre otros.

Si bien esta ley promueve indudablemente el desarrollo económico del país, y la formalidad en el empleo, gracias a la flexibilización del mercado laboral; esta no tiene en cuenta la estabilidad laboral de los trabajadores, siendo los ingresos de los agricultores muy bajos, limitándose a 4 soles la hora, y los de los empresarios muy altos. Como menciona el ministro trabajo, se necesita revisar en materia de derechos laborales, ya que la formalidad no está implicando bienestar social. Esto se explica en su proveniencia, el gobierno de Alberto Fujimori, quien tras un periodo de crisis económica muy duro, puso una en práctica una serie de políticas para promover el mercado y la inversión privada, siendo esta la única manera de poner a flote la economía nacional. Si bien actualmente la economía del Perú no es la óptima, no solo debería velar la visión de mercado, sino también la del bienestar social.

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