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Informe: ¿Quiénes son los maestros del Perú?

Perú 21

Allá por mayo, poco más de 200 mil docentes postulaban al ingreso de la carrera magisterial; hoy, solo alrededor del 5% logra acceder.

A mediados del año, estos docentes participaban de la Prueba Única Nacional (PUN), examen escrito que evaluaba comprensión lectora, razonamiento lógico y conocimientos pedagógicos de su especialidad:

Fuente: Minedu

Como se puede observar, el examen requería tan solo un 50% de acierto en las tres áreas; sin embargo, cerca del 90% de los postulantes desaprobó el examen. 22 115 docentes de un total de 208 mil fue capaz de seguir con la siguiente fase.

Además, en medio de la problemática de la huelga, el Minedu, en acuerdo con el Sutep Nacional, accedió a abrir 12 mil plazas adicionales a las 22 mil existentes, por lo que los 22 mil docentes que aprobaron el examen competían ahora por 34 mil plazas.

La segunda fase del ingreso a la carrera, la cual se desarrolla en los colegios que cuenten con plazas vacantes, consistió en la evaluación del manejo de estrategias didácticas, a través de la observación en aula y una entrevista; y de la trayectoria profesional, mediante una lista de cotejo. Sin embargo, solo la primera parte requería un puntaje mínimo:

Fuente: Minedu

Al finalizar esta fase, casi 70% logró aprobar la evaluación; no obstante, más de 6 mil profesores no se presentaron para esta etapa, por lo que la cantidad de aprobados finales fue menos de 11 mil.

Es importante destacar que esta figura supera a la del 2015, en la que 8 mil docentes alcanzaron el ingreso; sin embargo, la cantidad de plazas vacías también es mayor ahora, con más de 20 mil plazas libres, 10 mil de cuáles serán cubiertas por los docentes que pese a superar la PUN, no aprobaron la fase descentralizada y que, por tanto, obtendrán una plaza como docentes contratados por un año, en base al orden de mérito.

Asimismo, el Minedu ha señalado que se está planteando realizar una nueva convocatoria a inicios del próximo año, en busca de nombrar a más docentes, para lo cual, se solicitará una autorización al Congreso, en busca de que dicho proceso se vuelva un evento anual.

Sin embargo, el problema no es solo la cantidad de plazas vacías a nivel nacional, sino la desigualdad que existe entre los porcentajes cubiertos en distintas regiones, pues mientras que en Tacna, Lima, Moquegua y Lambayaque se logró cubrir más del 50% de las plazas disponibles, en Loreto, Amazonas y Ucayali no se alcanzó ni el 15%.

En este preocupante panorama, cabe preguntarse ¿quiénes buscan ingresar a la carrera magisterial en el Perú? Según la cartilla de revalorización docente del Minedu, una encuesta de GFK en el 2015 mostró que la edad promedio de los docentes postulantes al concurso es de 37 años, así que no se está logrando atraer a los egresados de la carrera docente, y aquellos que postulan, docentes contratados o con experiencia privada, no están aprobando los exámenes pese a su experiencia.

Más aún, entre los egresados de secundaria existe un mínimo interés por dedicarse a la educación, con la preferencia del 1%, según la encuesta de GFK; y este pequeño porcentaje, según la investigación de Hugo Ñopo que detalla la cartilla, obtiene puntajes bajos en los exámenes de admisión.

El Estado trabaja en la revalorización social y económica de la carrera magisterial, y se observan pequeños avances, pero un 5% de docentes que logran aprobar un examen escrito y uno en aula que contemplan contenidos didácticos es alarmante, y refleja la situación de la educación pública.

Referencias:

http://larepublica.pe/sociedad/1062114-minedu-abre-otras-12-mil-plazas-para-nombramiento

http://www.minedu.gob.pe/n/noticia.php?id=44896

https://peru21.pe/peru/minedu-plantean-nombrar-35-mil-docentes-383175

http://www.minedu.gob.pe/politicas/docencia/pdf/revalorizacion.pdf

Sergio García
Estudiante de Educación Primaria de la PUCP. Actual miembro de la organización de voluntariado “Educadando”. Sueña con construir y compartir sus ideas con toda la sociedad. Amante de la música, el conocimiento y la vida saludable.
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