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Análisis: Uber, ¿empresa de transporte o plataforma digital?

The Bubble

Hace poco, el Tribunal de Justicia de la Unión Europea determinó que “Uber es una empresa de transporte de pasajeros y no una plataforma digital de intermediación entre viajeros”. Esto significa que estará obligada a trabajar con licencia y no podrá ser operada por conductores particulares. Esta decisión, desde luego, tiene impacto en muchos países del mundo y, en concreto, en Perú, ya que dicho servicio es muy utilizado tanto por conductores como por pasajeros.

Actualmente el servicio de transporte de taxi encuentra una regulación de carácter general en la Ley N° 27181, Ley de Transporte y Tránsito Terrestre (Ley), que establece los lineamientos generales económicos, organizacionales y reglamentarios del transporte y tránsito terrestre. Esto rige en todo el territorio de la República y señala las competencias del Ministerio de Transportes y Comunicaciones, Gobiernos Regionales y Locales y del INDECOPI.

En consonancia con estas competencias, por citar un ejemplo, la Municipalidad Metropolitana de Lima emitió la Ordenanza N° 1684 que regula la prestación del servicio de taxi en la ciudad. Además, tiene por finalidad garantizar las condiciones de calidad y seguridad de la prestación del servicio de taxi en Lima Metropolitana.

Entonces tenemos que existe una regulación general dada por la ley y sus reglamentos y complementaria por los gobiernos locales para las personas naturales y jurídicas que prestan servicio de taxi. Sin embargo, no encontramos ese tipo de regulación para las personas naturales que prestan servicio de taxi a través de una plataforma digital como es el caso de Uber o Easy Taxi por citar algunos ejemplos.

Ahora bien, lo antes indicado nos permite preguntarnos si Uber es una empresa de transporte o una plataforma digital. Al respecto, no existe un marco legal específico que nos permita responder esa pregunta. Por ello, este vacío legal nos permite mirar con detenimiento lo resuelto por el Tribunal.

Sobre esto, el Tribunal señaló lo siguiente: “está indisociablemente vinculado a un servicio de transporte y, por lo tanto, ha de calificarse de servicio en el ámbito de los transportes”. Asimismo, precisó que los estados miembros de la Unión Europea deben regular la prestación de estos servicios, teniendo como referente las características propias del mismo. Esto permite concluir que con igual razón corresponde al Poder Legislativo o a los gobiernos locales peruanos hacer un marco regulatorio apropiado.

Finalmente, y sin perjuicio de lo anterior, de cara a los consumidores, el INDECOPI a través de su jurisprudencia ya estableció un precedente contenido en la Resolución Nro. 1203-2016/SPC-INDECOPI. Ahí considera que, aunque se trate de un servicio brindado por una plataforma virtual, en caso las denuncias de los consumidores vayan dirigidas a la idoneidad del servicio de transporte, serán competencia del Órgano Resolutivo de Procedimientos Sumarísimos número 1.

Jhordan Pinillos
Abogado especialista en Derecho del Consumidor y estudiante de la Maestría en Derecho de la Empresa de la Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú (PUCP).
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